首页 朱明之关于建筑-公众号 笔记《日本预制建筑大规模工业化的演变和服务创新》



Journal of Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management,  


Volume 12 issue 2 https://doi.org/10.1108/14714171211215921

© Emerald Group Publishing Limited 2012


Thomas Linner

Technische Universität München

Thomas Bock

Technische Universität München

Evolution of large-scale Industrialisation and Service -Innovation in Japanese Prefabrication Industry




Purpose – The Japanese prefabrication industry not only has automated its processes to a high extent, but it also innovates due to the fact that it delivers buildings of outstanding quality accompanied by a multitude of services. In order to explore and specify the concepts and parameters that have driven this industry, Japan’s prefabrication industry, its cultural, economic and technological surrounding, as well as the applied processes, technologies and economic strategies, have to be illustrated and analyzed. The proposed research aim was to identify, describe and analyse these concepts and their related parameters, as well as to recognize the most influential drivers for the future, that provide an indication into which direction the industry could evolve.


Research Methodology – Being aware that literature does not provide relevant information and data, which would allow the authors to explore concepts and parameters explaining the success of the Japanese prefabrication industry, the authors performed field surveys, visited factories, R&D centres and sales points of all major Japanese prefabrication companies. In some cases authors also interviewed general managers, researchers and developers, and academicians at Japanese universities. Based on an extensive literature review in the area of product development, production technology, modularisation, mass customisation, and innovation, the authors qualitatively and quantitatively analysed all major prefabrication companies according to a fixed scheme.

研究方法:意识到文学并没有提供相关的信息和数据,这将允许作者探索概念和参数解释日本预制行业的成功,作者进行了实地调查,参观工厂,R& D中心和销售的所有主要日本预制的公司。在某些情况下,作者还采访了日本大学的总经理、研究人员和开发人员以及学者。基于在产品开发、生产技术、模块化、大规模定制和创新领域广泛的文献综述,作者定性和定量地根据一个固定的方案分析了所有主要的预制制造公司。

Findings – The concepts and parameters identified and analyzed in this paper, demonstrate that the Japanese prefabrication industry, which is leading in large-scale industrialization, nowadays focuses towards services that are related to the building’s utilization phase, rather than delivering products. By involving customers it enhances the companies’ customer relations, creating thus competitive advantages.


Originality/ value – Overall the paper shows that Japanese prefabrication industry rather acts like a “production industry” than a “construction industry”. Similar to many other high-tech industries, Japan’s prefabrication industry incorporates latest product and process technologies and combines automation, products and services into complex value-capturing systems.


Keywords: Building Production, Automation in Construction, Product and Service Innovation, Mass Customization, Japanese Prefabrication Industry


Category: Research/ Case Study




Prefabrication holds a considerable share in the housing market in many European countries, such as Germany (15%), Austria (up to 33%), France (5%), Spain (5%) and the Scandinavian Countries. In Germany, currently about 20,000 prefabricated houses are delivered per year by companies as Bien-Zenker AG (580 houses/ year), Huf Haus GmbH (450 houses/ year), Weber Haus GmbH (600 houses/ year) and Kampa House GmbH (1,086 houses/ year). The advantage of buying prefabricated buildings is the low price compared to conventionally built buildings and the relatively rapid delivery (about six days period of delivery). However, the European prefabrication industry cannot really be considered industrialized. According to classical theory (e.g. Henry Ford’s Mass Production) as well as modern concepts (e.g. flexible manufacturing, mass customization), industrialization implies that large scales of products were produced using latest production technology, automation, robotics, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), in order to deliver high quality products with reasonable costs. In Europe, no prefabrication company has yet reached the critical mass of an annual production, which would allow for investment in efficient processes and automation. It rather seems that conventional construction processes have been shifted to the factory and combined with elements of shop floor production. Furthermore, prefabrication in Europe has predominantly found its niche in the low cost market, which doesn’t allow for product or service innovation. Unlike Japanese prefabricated buildings, the choices available to European customers to individualize those houses are rather low.

预制建筑在许多欧洲国家的房屋市场占有相当大的份额,如德国(15%),奥地利(33%),法国(5%),西班牙(5%)和斯堪的纳维亚国家。在德国,Bien-Zenker AG公司(580套房屋/年)、Huf Haus公司(450套房屋/年)、Weber Haus公司(600套房屋/年)和Kampa House公司(1,086套房屋/年)每年大约交付20,000套预制房屋。购买预制件建筑的优点是,与传统建筑相比,价格低廉,交货相对迅速(交货期约为6天)。然而,欧洲的预制工业不能真正被认为是工业化的。根据经典理论(例如亨利•福特(Henry Ford)年代大规模生产)以及现代概念(如柔性制造、大规模定制),工业化意味着大规模生产的产品都是使用最新的生产技术,自动化,机器人技术,信息和通信技术(ICT),以提供高质量的产品和合理的成本。在欧洲,还没有一家预制建筑公司达到年生产的临界量,这将允许对高效流程和自动化进行投资。传统的施工流程似乎已经转移到工厂,并与车间生产的要素结合在一起。此外,预制在欧洲已经在低成本市场找到了它的利基,这是不允许产品或服务创新。与日本的预制建筑不同,欧洲客户可以选择个性化的房屋是相当低的。

In Japan, the prefabrication industry mainly deals with middle to high-end market (Matsumura, 2007; Linner, 2007), for which it delivers highly customized and reliable products that are equipped with the latest technology available and accompanied by a variety of services. Above all, prefab houses are well known for being earthquake resistant. Various maintenance models guarantee the building’s functionality for at least thirty years, and some companies offer even sixty years of service. Prefabrication companies altogether build about 150,000 housing units per annum. The following can be considered as a comparison: In 2008, the same amount of building permissions in private housing in Germany were issued both in conventional and prefabricated construction. Already in the nineteen-seventies, Sekisui Heim’s legendary M1 reached an annual production volume of more than 3,000 buildings. A high annual production rate on a steady level allowed the investment in component systems, expensive manufacturing technology (e.g. production lines, automation, and robotics, advanced logistic systems) and extended customer services, which are labelling the uniqueness and strength of the Japanese prefabrication industry today. Moreover, the productivity of this industry has become so high, depending on the capacity utilization, that three to four customized buildings per employee can be realized annually (Sekisui Heim, 2008; Sekisui House, 2008). Japan’s housing industry is amongst the strongest industries worldwide. However, it has undergone a steady change and decline since the 1990’s. The maximum production peak was reached in 1994 with 573,173 newly constructed housing units. In 2000, about 450,000 units were constructed and in 2009 the construction went down to just 318,000 units. During peak times, the percentage of prefabricated houses, which were entirely prefabricated, was about 18 to 19 %. Today’s quota has decreased to just 13 to 15%, depending on the region (Sekisui Heim, 2010; Toyota Home, 2010). However, also in conventional construction, a high amount of prefabricated elements were used, which increases the actual percentage of prefabrication in the whole building industry, although it is difficult to give numbers. The prefabrication of entire buildings can be broken down into about 80% steel-based building kits, 15% wood-based building kits and 5% concrete-based building kits.

在日本,预制建筑行业主要面向中高端市场(Matsumura, 2007;Linner, 2007),为其提供高度定制和可靠的产品,配备了最新的技术,并伴随各种服务。最重要的是,预制房屋以防震而闻名。各种维修模式保证建筑物至少30年的使用寿命,有些公司甚至提供60年的使用寿命。预制建筑公司每年总共建造约15万套住房。以下可以作为比较:在2008年,德国颁发了相同数量的私人住宅建筑许可,无论是传统建筑还是预制建筑。早在十九世纪七十年代,Sekisui Heim的传奇M1就达到了年产3000多栋建筑的规模。在稳定水平上的高年生产率使得在组件系统、昂贵的制造技术(如生产线、自动化和机器人、先进的物流系统)和扩展的客户服务方面的投资成为可能,这些都标志着今天日本预制制造行业的独特性和实力。此外,这个行业的生产力已经变得如此之高,取决于产能利用率,以至于每个员工每年可以实现3到4栋定制建筑(Sekisui Heim, 2008;Sekisui房子,2008)。日本的房地产业是世界上最强大的产业之一。然而,自20世纪90年代以来,它经历了一个稳定的变化和衰退。1994年达到了生产的最高高峰,新建了573 173套住房。2000年,大约建造了45万套住房,而到了2009年,建筑数量下降到只有31.8万套。在高峰期,全是预制房屋的比例约为18%至19%。根据地区的不同,如今的配额已减少到只有13%至15%(塞基斯·海姆,2010年;丰田的家,2010)。然而,在传统建筑中,也使用了大量的预制构件,这增加了整个建筑行业中预制构件的实际百分比,尽管很难给出具体数字。整个建筑的预制可以分解为大约80%的钢基建筑组件,15%的木材基建筑组件和5%的混凝土基建筑组件。

Table 1: Maximum production peaks in housing of main players of the prefabrication industry.


Source: Yearly financial reports of Sekisui House, Daiwa House, Sekisui Heim and Toyota Home∗


Sekisui House, which remains the main player in Japan’s prefabrication industry, reached its peak in 1994 with a production of 78,275 housing units. At this time, Sekisui’s quota of the total building construction market was 5,3%. Both Sekisui House and Daiwa House, the second largest player in Japan’s prefabrication industry, tried to encounter the decline in the market by going into a developer position. Houses and apartments were developed, planned and constructed in order to rent them out later. These houses and apartments are also based on mass customisable housing kits and ensure that the capacities of expensive automated production facilities are utilised to a maximum.

Sekisui House仍然是日本预制建筑行业的主要参与者,它在1994年达到顶峰,生产了78275套住宅单元。在这个时候,Sekisui的总建筑市场份额是5,3%。Sekisui House和大和房建(Daiwa House)都试图通过成为开发商来应对市场下滑。大和房建是日本预制建筑行业的第二大开发商。房屋和公寓的开发、规划和建造是为了以后能出租。这些房屋和公寓也是基于大规模定制的住房套件,并确保昂贵的自动化生产设施的能力得到最大限度的利用。

Table 2: Housing production of main players in 2009.


Source: Yearly financial reports of Sekisui House, Daiwa House, Sekisui Heim and Toyota Home ∗


To address the decrease in demand and to build up new ways of value creation, all main players are focusing more and more on the building’s utilization phase, building performance and advanced Building Information Modelling (BIM), in order to manage the building’s life-cycle and provision of more and more services accompanying the hard physical product.


Research Question


Comparing the European and the Japanese prefabrication market using the aforementioned facts and figures, it can be concluded that prefabrication in Japan is much more industrialized. This means that companies have higher production volumes, along with standardized processes, just-in-time, automation and flow line-like production, (together with human work activity), in all factories of the four biggest prefabrication companies. Despite this high degree of industrialization, prefabricated buildings are considered as the most customized, reliable, technology-equipped and properly designed buildings in Japan. Above all, Japanese prefabrication companies have managed to bundle a variety of customer services to their buildings. Thus, Japanese prefabrication industry is not only to a high extend industrialized but at the same time innovative, as it delivers buildings of outstanding quality (customized, earth quake resistant, properly designed, reliable, equipped with the latest technology). Now this industry even starts to create a completely new business services. In order to explore and specify the concepts and parameters that have driven this industry its’ cultural, economic and technological surrounding as well as applied processes, technologies and economic strategies have to be described and analyzed. As in many success stories of complex socio-technical systems (Fujimoto, 1999), we assume that the success of Japan’s prefabrication industry today, was also based on a complex relation of concepts and parameters, that evolved out of historic and cultural developments. The research aim is to identify, describe and justify these concepts and related parameters, and to recognize the most likely and influential drivers for the future, that provide an indication in which direction the industry could evolve.


Research Methodology


Large scale industrialization and automation is a rare phenomenon that was not only discussed theoretically, but also applied in real life. The Moma Catalogue (Bergdoll and Christensen, 2008), accompanying the 2008 exhibition “Home Delivery”, is one of the most recent collections of concepts, projects and real-life examples of prefabricated buildings. It clearly revealed that most ideas about prefabrication remain abstract concepts (Archigram, Metastadt), others are only built once or a few times, and only a few have reached a reasonable production number (e.g. some systems of Jean Prove). Similarly, none of the building systems mentioned, analysed and discussed in the book “New Perspective in Industrialization in Construction – A State-of-the-Art Report”, published in 2010 and co-authored by experts from CIB’s TG 57 (Girmscheid and Scheublin, 2010), has reached an extent of production that is comparable to the mentioned Japanese systems. Comparable amounts, or a comparable degree, of automation has not been achieved even in the prefabrication of concrete elements for the civil engineering and infrastructure sector (Bock and Linner, 2010; Girmscheid, 2010). Furthermore, in the area of open building systems, most systems discussed are conceptual or experimental (Habraken, 2000; Kendall and Teicher, 2000). As mentioned in literature, you cannot extract guidelines that determine success, especially when dealing with concepts or projects, which are applied in larger scales. Due to cultural barriers and limited access of foreigners to the Japanese society, economy and technology, only a few international publications about the Japanese prefabrication market have been proposed. In (Wimmer, 2009), the author visited Sekisui House and mainly discusses the resource efficiency of the Japanese prefabrication industry. In (Johnson, 2008), economic concepts of the Japanese prefabrication market are discussed and comparisons to the market of the United Kingdom are made. Nevertheless, the author does not mention in detail the production technology and the service aspects. Similarly, (Andersson, et al., 2010) deals with the application of building information modelling in the Japanese prefabrication industry, without mentioning the context in which this happens. In general, researchers of Japanese prefabrication companies do not easily publish about their own technologies. One of the rare publications about the production system (Furuse and Katano, 2006), was issued in the International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction held in Tokyo. Further books, brochures and websites, directly from the Japanese prefabrication companies, are predominantly written in Japanese language and do not reveal details about strategies and technologies. Being aware of the situation that literature does not provide relevant information and data, which would allow the authors to explore concepts and parameters in order to explain the success of Japanese prefabrication, the authors started a field survey. Visits to factories, R&D centres and sales points of all four mentioned prefabrication companies, were conducted. The authors also interviewed general managers, researchers and developers (Sekisui House, 2008 and 2009; Daiwa House, 2008; Sekisui Heim, 2008 and 2010; Toyota Home, 2008, 2009 and 2010). Furthermore, they interviewed researchers at the University of Tokyo and the Kyushu University, which were familiar with the subject. Based on extensive literature review in the area of product development, production technology, modularization, mass customization and innovation (Baldwin and Clark, 2000;Ohno, 1988; Maraghy and Wiendahl, 2009; Piller, 2006; Chesbrough, 2011; Forza and Salvador, 2007), the authors qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed all four mentioned companies during their field survey, concerning the designed scheme to reflect the value chain:

大规模工业化和自动化是一个罕见的现象,不仅在理论上被讨论,而且在现实生活中得到了应用。现代艺术博物馆(Moma)的目录(Bergdoll和Christensen, 2008年),伴随着2008年的“送货上门”展览,是预制建筑的最新概念、项目和现实范例的集合之一。它清楚地揭示了大多数关于预制的想法仍然是抽象的概念(Archigram, Metastadt),其他的只是建造了一次或几次,并且只有少数达到了合理的生产数量(例如一些系统的Jean Prove)。同样,没有提到的建筑系统,分析和讨论了在书中新的视角在工业化建设一个先进的报告,出版于2010年,由专家从CIB年代TG 57 (Girmscheid Scheublin, 2010),已达到一个程度比得上提到日本的生产系统。即使在土木工程和基础设施部门的混凝土构件预制中,也没有实现可比较的数量或程度的自动化(博克和林纳,2010年;Girmscheid, 2010)。此外,在开放建筑系统领域,讨论的大多数系统都是概念性或实验性的(Habraken, 2000;Kendall and Teicher, 2000)。正如在文献中提到的,您不能提取决定成功的指导方针,特别是在处理概念或项目时,它们被应用于更大的规模。由于文化障碍和外国人接触日本社会、经济和技术的渠道有限,有关日本预制建筑市场的国际出版物寥寥无几。在(Wimmer, 2009)中,作者参观了Sekisui House,主要讨论了日本预制行业的资源效率问题。在(Johnson, 2008)中,讨论了日本预制市场的经济概念,并与英国市场进行了比较。但是,在生产技术和服务方面,作者并没有详细提及。类似地,(Andersson等人,2010)处理了建筑信息建模在日本预制行业中的应用,但没有提及发生这种情况的上下文。一般来说,日本预制建筑公司的研究人员不会轻易发表他们自己的技术。关于生产系统的罕见出版物之一(Furuse和Katano, 2006)在东京举行的建筑自动化和机器人技术国际研讨会上发表。其他直接来自日本预制建筑公司的书籍、小册子和网站主要是用日语写的,没有透露有关战略和技术的细节。了解到文献没有提供相关信息和数据的情况,这将允许作者探索概念和参数,以解释日本预制的成功,作者开始了实地调查。他们走访了上述四家预制建筑公司的工厂、研发中心和销售点。作者还采访了总经理、研究人员和开发人员(Sekisui House, 2008年和2009年;大和房建,2008;Sekisui Heim, 2008年和2010年;丰田家居,2008,2009和2010)。此外,他们还采访了熟悉这一课题的东京大学和九州大学的研究人员。基于对产品开发、生产技术、模块化、大规模定制和创新领域的广泛文献综述(Baldwin和Clark, 2000;Ohno, 1988;Maraghy和Wiendahl, 2009年;皮,2006;两,2011;Forza和Salvador, 2007),作者在他们的实地调查中定性和定量地分析了所有提到的四家公司,关于设计方案来反映价值链

1. Evolution of the company and the companies systems

2. Design Aspects: product structure, modularization, design for production

3. Degree of customer integration

4. Supply chain management

5. Off-Site Process: Automation and production technology, factory layouts

6. On-Site Process: completion process on site

7. Life-cycle management and customer relationship

8. Service Innovation

1. 公司和公司制度的演变
4. 供应链管理
5. 场外流程:自动化和生产技术,工厂布局
6. 现场流程:现场完成流程
7. 生命周期管理和客户关系
8. 服务创新

According to their analysis, it was realised that Sekisui House and Daiwa House have a high production outcome, but compared to Sekisui Heim and Toyota Home, they have a lower degree of automation and work tasks done in the factory. Toyota Home performs about 85% of all works in the factory, (highest degree of prefabrication), but hardly ever produced more than 5,000 houses per annum. The Sekisui Heim company was the most interesting to the authors. Sekisui Heim has applied a flow production on the production line which was very close to automotive industry, regarding organisation and appearance. Sekisui Heim has a medium sized production outcome and a prefabrication degree of about 80%. In this paper, the authors therefore focus on Sekisui Heim and identify, describe and analyse parameters that are relevant for efficient large scale industrialization. The other companies will be analysed in further papers. Comparative analysis of all four companies mentioned above will be also realized in further papers.

根据他们的分析,他们意识到Sekisui House和大和House的生产效率很高,但与Sekisui Heim和丰田Home相比,他们的自动化程度较低,工作任务也在工厂完成。丰田家居完成了工厂85%的工作,(最高程度的预制),但几乎从来没有生产超过5000个房子每年对作者来说,Sekisui Heim公司是最有趣的。在组织和外观方面,积水海姆在生产线上采用了非常接近汽车工业的流程生产。Sekisui Heim拥有中等规模的生产成果和约80%的预制度。因此,在这篇论文中,作者将重点放在了Sekisui Heim上,并识别、描述和分析了与大规模高效工业化相关的参数。其他公司将在进一步的论文中进行分析。以上四家公司的对比分析也将在以后的论文中实现。

The remainder of the paper is structured as follows: First, an analysis of how the historic and cultural development led to the evolution of large-scale industrialization is presented, by cross-linking to Sekisui House and Toyota Home, as all major companies have influenced continuously each other. Secondly, the strategies, processes and technologies deployed at Sekisui Heim today are depicted. Thirdly, it is shown that customer services play an important role in Sekisui Heim’s success and that the proposed analysis has revealed the fact that more service innovation is under development in the R&D centres of the prefabrication companies.

本文的剩余部分结构如下:首先,通过交叉链接Sekisui House和Toyota Home,分析历史文化发展如何导致大规模工业化的演变,因为所有的大公司都是相互影响的。其次,描述了目前Sekisui Heim所采用的策略、过程和技术。第三,客户服务在Sekisui Heim的成功中发挥了重要作用,所提出的分析表明,更多的服务创新正在预制建筑公司的研发中心发展。

Finally, the importance of this development for a changing housing industry is discussed. A summarization of the findings concludes the proposed paper.


Historic and Cultural Development: the Evolution of Prefabrication in Japan


Japanese prefabrication and construction automation are often presented as genius and advanced strategies, that were developed by companies, innovators and governmental institutions in the 1970’s-1990’s. In the same way, it is also discussed why large–scale industrialization and automated construction has been applied successfully only in Japan, and why innovators in other locations and environments cannot manage to build up similar structures, although their technologies, processes and strategies might be even more advanced. One helpful contribution to these discussions and questions can be given by an evolutionary view on the subject. Just as Takahiro Fujimoto describes today’s performance of the Toyota Production System as a consequence of evolution (Fujimoto, 1999), the existence of large-scale and highly automated prefabrication of individual buildings in the Japanese housing industry can be described as the outcome of a long-term learning and development process. Japan’s advanced prefabrication industry was formed by a combination of continuous incremental and disruptive innovations and a unique socio-economic and socio-cultural environment (desire for new, fast changing markets, earthquakes, reduced human resources, service attitude) stepwise over time. Traditionally, organizational culture in Japan is based on collective, non-hierarchical and informal decision-making (“ringi seido”), bringing information from customers and production directly to management and product design, allowing thus the company’s organization to evolve and adapt over time. Over centuries, prefabrication has been deeply connected to Japanese architectural culture. Traditional Japanese timber construction can be considered an early example of high-level prefabrication in the building industry. Additionally, Japanese tradition is closely related to a strong favour for order, standardisation and systematisation. An important activator for early prefabrication was found in the famous Ken, a 1:2 relation proportion and measurement system. Furthermore, tatami mats – the traditional Japanese floor finishing – principally follows strict grids and order systems. Having usually an edge length of 85cm x 170 cm, tatami mats can be combined in a lot of variations in order to shape the room’s dimension, which is always designed in an exact number of mats – a necessity since the mats had continuously been changed between the rooms, according to their current usage. Two layouts became common: The Syugijiki-Layout always has two tatami mats in its centre, surrounded by a number of additional mats, whereas the Fusyugijiki-Layout places several mats parallel in a strict orientation. Today, it is still common, that a room size is expressed with the number of Tatami mats instead of square meters. Contemporary Japanese architects are at the same time familiar with these rules and measurement systems and standardization often results in a particular multilevel grid, which can be found not only in the building’s foot print but as an underlying rhythm also in its elevations, as well as in its decorative built-in parts, such as religious corners, wardrobes or shoji-screens (traditional Japanese sliding doors), allowing an easy combination or reconfiguration of rooms (Figure 1). Even some urban master plans follow these incremental measures, since each building unit is related to a multiplication of Tatami mats. This favour for standardization and measurement systems generated a supportive environment for prefabrication.

日本的预制和施工自动化通常被认为是由公司、创新者和政府机构在20世纪70 – 90年代开发的天才和先进的战略。以同样的方式,它也讨论了为什么大规模工业化和自动化建设已经成功地应用在日本,以及为什么在其他地点和环境的创新者不能设法建立类似的结构,尽管他们的技术、过程和战略可能更先进。一个有益的贡献,这些讨论和问题可以给出一个进化的观点的主题。正如藤本隆弘(Takahiro Fujimoto, 1999)所描述的,丰田生产系统今天的表现是进化的结果(藤本隆弘,1999),日本住宅行业中大规模、高度自动化的单体建筑预制的存在可以被描述为一个长期学习和发展过程的结果。日本先进的预制制造产业是由持续的增量和破坏性创新以及独特的社会经济和社会文化环境(对新的、快速变化的市场的渴望、地震、人力资源的减少、服务态度)逐步形成的。传统上,日本的组织文化是基于集体的、非等级的和非正式的决策(ringi seido),将客户和生产的信息直接带到管理和产品设计中,从而使公司的组织能够随着时间的推移而发展和适应。几个世纪以来,预制建筑已经深深地融入了日本的建筑文化。传统的日本木结构可以被认为是建筑行业高级预制的早期例子。此外,日本的传统与对秩序、标准化和系统化的强烈偏好密切相关。在著名的1:2比例测量系统Ken中发现了一种重要的早期预制催化剂。此外,榻榻米垫传统的日本地板整理主要遵循严格的网格和秩序系统。通常有一个边缘的长度85厘米* 170厘米,榻榻米可以组合的变化来塑造空间维度,这始终是设计的确切数字自垫垫必须不断被改变之间的房间,根据他们目前的使用情况。两种布局变得普遍起来:沉淀式布局总是在它的中心有两个榻榻米垫子,被一些额外的垫子包围,而fusyugiji -布局将几个垫子在一个严格的方向上平行放置。今天,用榻榻米的数量来表示房间的大小,而不是用平方米来表示房间的大小,这仍然很普遍。日本当代建筑师同时熟悉这些规则和测量系统和标准化往往导致一个特定的多级网格,可以发现不仅在建筑年代脚印,作为一个潜在的节奏也在它的海拔,以及在其装饰内置部件,如宗教的角落,衣柜或障子(日本传统滑动门),允许房间的简单组合或重新配置(图1)。甚至一些城市总体规划也遵循这些增量措施,因为每个建筑单元都与大量的榻榻米垫子相关。这种对标准化和测量系统的青睐为预制制造创造了一个支持性的环境。

Figure 1: Unique Measurement systems like the Tatami supported standardization and prefabrication.


Sekisui Heim M1: Design for Production

积水海姆M1: 面向制造的设计

In 1968, Kazuhiko Ono developed, as part of his doctoral thesis at the Tokyo University, the legendary M1 system of Sekisui Heim. This three-dimensional modular kit was famous for its genius simplicity. It could reduce the complexity in order to allow industrial line-based production. The M1 was a prototype for merging multiple qualities, design and production aspects. The “units” based on steel frames perfectly suited to the industrial production and low number of components could generate a variety of possible solutions for the customer. In the 1970’s, the M1 reached an annual and steady production of more than 3,000 units per annum allowing the investment in advanced automation. (Figure 2)

1968年,作为他在东京大学博士论文的一部分,小野一彦开发了传奇的Sekisui Heim M1系统。这个三维的模块化工具包以其天才的简单而闻名。它可以降低复杂性,实现基于生产线的工业生产。M1是一个原型,融合了多种质量,设计和生产方面。基于钢框架的“单元”非常适合工业生产,而且组件数量少,可以为客户提供多种可能的解决方案。在20世纪70年代,M1达到了每年超过3000辆的稳定产量,允许投资于先进的自动化。(图2)

Figure 2: Sekisui Heim’s legendary M1 was the first prefabricated housing model which reached an annual production of over 3000 buildings/year over several years.

图2:Sekisui Heim传奇的M1是第一个预制房屋模型,在几年的时间里,年生产能力超过3000栋建筑/年。

From Japan’s Traditional Organizational Culture towards Toyota Home


A further milestone in the evolution of mass customized building production has been set up by Toyota and the application of the legendary Toyota Production System (TPS) to manufacturing of space units. After the Second World War, the Toyota Motor Corporation was initially seeking methods, to increase its productivity rapidly. During several visits in the factories of Ford and General Motors, managers of Toyota realized that a production concept based on mass and variation production would never have great success, especially not in Japan (Ohno, 1988). According to Toyota, the ability of a fast adjustment to the frequent change of market needs in Japan was essential for a new production system. Under these circumstances, Toyota started to invent its own marked-based production system, tailored on Japanese requirements: The Toyota Production System. The revolution was the extension of conventional material and information flows (“Push Production”) into a new concept, based on current demands (“Pull Production”). In a pulling production, the assembly line delivers only products, which were demanded to avoid stocks and overproduction. An integrated communication system called “Kanban” was developed to support the new information and material flow. The important aspect is that the Kanban information chain is started by the demand of a customer for a specific product with a specific configuration. Thus, the factory’s output is “pulled” by customers, instead of formerly “pushing” when the output has been defined by the factory management and storage capacities. The complete synchronization of production and customer demands requires also a strict synchronization between factory and suppliers, since previous work steps are only being executed on the request of subsequent steps, just-in-time and just-in-sequence. Another achievement of Taichi Ohno was the application of a “zero-wastage-policy”. Since Japan received only little economical support after the Second World War, it was required to find an efficient way to work with existing resources. Therefore, Ohno disclosed seven major waste producers in his concept. The most common waste-producer identified was over-production: a product is being delivered without a customer’s demand. Finally, in the 1970’s, Toyota develop its housing business with Toyota Home and started to produce prefabricated houses, transferring the Toyota Production System from its automotive section to the industrialized and production line-based manufacturing of buildings. During the following decades, all other main players of the prefabrication industry followed this newly set trend installing the basic ideas of TPS in their plants, products and organizations.

在大规模定制建筑生产的发展过程中,另一个里程碑是由丰田公司建立的,并将传奇性的丰田生产系统(TPS)应用于空间单元的制造。第二次世界大战后,丰田汽车公司开始寻求快速提高生产率的方法。在对福特和通用汽车工厂的几次考察中,丰田的经理们意识到,基于大规模和多样化生产的生产理念永远不会取得巨大成功,尤其是在日本(Ohno, 1988)。丰田认为,对于一个新的生产体系来说,快速适应日本市场需求频繁变化的能力至关重要。在这种情况下,丰田开始根据日本人的要求,发明自己的基于市场的生产体系:丰田生产体系。这场革命是传统物质和信息流(推动生产)的延伸,是基于当前需求的一种新概念(拉式生产)。在拉制生产中,装配线只交付产品,这是为了避免库存和生产过剩。一种称为看板的集成通信系统被开发出来以支持新的信息和物料流。重要的一点是,看板信息链是从客户对具有特定配置的特定产品的需求开始的。因此,当输出由工厂管理和存储能力定义时,工厂的输出是由客户拉动的,而不是以前的推。生产和客户需求的完全同步还需要工厂和供应商之间的严格同步,因为之前的工作步骤只是在随后的步骤、准时制和按顺序制的要求下执行的。大野太极的另一个成就是零浪费政策的应用。由于日本在第二次世界大战之后只得到很少的经济支持,它必须找到一种有效的方法来利用现有资源。因此,大野省在他的概念中披露了七个主要的废物产生者。最常见的垃圾产生者是生产过剩:产品在没有客户需求的情况下被交付。最后,在20世纪70年代,丰田通过丰田家居(Toyota Home)发展了住宅业务,开始生产预制房屋,将丰田生产系统从汽车部门转移到工业化的、以生产线为基础的建筑制造。在接下来的几十年里,预制行业的所有其他主要参与者都遵循了这一新趋势,在他们的工厂、产品和组织中安装了TPS的基本思想。

Introduction of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems by Sekisui Heim

介绍Sekisui Heim企业资源规划系统

After the successful application of the Toyota Production System (TPS) in the fields of building manufacturing, Sekisui Heim followed Toyota and adapted and refined TPS, as well. However, in the 1980’s, Sekisui came up with another essential innovation: the parent company Sekisui Chemical developed an innovative computer-based Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system, for controlling the production and logistic flow. This ERP system was subsequently transferred to the Sekisui Chemical’s subsections. In the housing section, this ERP system laid the foundation for HAPPS (Heim Automated Parts Pickup System). The system translates floor plans and design requirements of architects and customers directly into production plans and data, needed to operate automated production. Today, it can also be used to develop new platforms, components and solution spaces. It assures a complete communication between suppliers, work steps on different sections, timing and feeding of the 400-metre-assembly-line. Therefore, HAPPS chooses for one building approximately 30,000 parts out of 300,000 listed items and arranges them just-in-time and just-in-sequence for production.

在丰田生产系统(TPS)成功应用于建筑制造领域后,Sekisui Heim也效仿丰田,对TPS进行了调整和改进。然而,在20世纪80年代,Sekisui公司提出了另一项重要的创新:母公司Sekisui化学公司开发了一种创新的基于计算机的企业资源计划(ERP)系统,用于控制生产和物流流程。这个ERP系统随后被转移到Sekisui化学公司的分部。在房屋部分,该ERP系统为HAPPS (Heim自动取件系统)奠定了基础。该系统将建筑平面图和建筑师和客户的设计要求直接转化为生产计划和数据,从而实现自动化生产。现在,它还可以用于开发新的平台、组件和解决方案空间。它确保了供应商之间的完整沟通,不同部分的工作步骤,时间和喂养的400米的装配线。因此,HAPPS从列出的30万种产品中选择了大约3万个部件,并在生产时及时和按顺序排列它们。

Analysis of currently applied Processes and Technologies


The following explains the basic strategies of Japanese prefabrication industry. Sekisui House and Daiwa House use light steel frame panels, allowing tremendous scale effects in automated production, as well as a compact transport to the construction site with less logistical efforts. In contrast to that, Sekisui Heim and Toyota Home have based their strategy on steel frame cubicles used as a chassis on a conveyor belt. This allows a house to be completed within the factory, to a percentage reaching 85%. In this proposed paper, the basic industrialization strategies by a case study of Sekisui Heim’s Unit method are explained.

以下是日本预制业的基本策略。Sekisui House和大和House采用轻钢框架面板,实现了自动化生产的巨大规模效应,以及运输到施工现场的紧凑性,减少了物流负担。与此形成对比的是,Sekisui Heim和丰田之家的策略是将钢架隔间用作传送带上的底盘。这使得房子可以在工厂内完成,比例达到85%。本文以塞克齐海姆的单元法为例,阐述了工业化的基本策略。

Annual Production年产量:14,550 Houses (2009)

Product Structure产品结构:3-dimensional Space Frames, Steel/Wood (Unit Method)

Degree of Customer Integration客户整合程度:Up to layout and Design Level

Logistics and Supply Chain供应链管理:Close Cooperation with suppliers, Factory Network, Factories in different regions producing local housing types

Production Systems制造系统:Production Flow System, Conveyor Belt, Degree of Factory Production

On-Site Assembly现场组装:about 1 month

Customer Relationship客户维护:30 years warranty, Renovation Service(FamiS),Deconstruction and Remanufacturing

Table 3: Summary of Concepts and facts of Sekisui Heim.


Source: Site visits in Japan in 2009, website of Sekisui Heim ∗


Sekisui Heim breaks down a unique family house into ten to fifteen units, each being an individual module, and each fabricated within the factory up to 85% completion. Within those units, a multitude of other three-dimensional subsystems from various suppliers with a high degree of prefabrication (e.g. bath and kitchen modules), are integrated in production line based factories. In Japan, this production method has been and further developed and used since nearly half a century ago, and shows many analogies to automotive production. For instance, a continuous production line becomes possible through the introduction of a three-dimensional steel frame being used as a “chassis”. This “chassis” support structure is processed with a speed of 1,4 metres per minute, passing more than 45 workstations on a conveyor belt with a length of approximately 400 metres. During this process, it will be equipped with modules, components and subsystems. The “chassis” is finished sequentially in 3 dimensions with components either being supplied just-in-time, or have been produced in parallel processes on different floors (e.g. wall panels). Main concepts and important facts are summarized in Table 3. The following describes and analyses those concepts and parameters.

Sekisui Heim将一个独特的家庭住宅分成10到15个单元,每个单元都是一个独立的模块,每个模块在工厂内组装完成率高达85%。在这些单元中,来自不同供应商的高度预制的大量其他三维子系统(如浴室和厨房模块)被集成到生产线工厂中。在日本,这种生产方法在近半个世纪前就得到了进一步的发展和使用,并与汽车生产有许多相似之处。例如,通过引入一个用作“底盘”的三维钢框架,一个连续的生产线成为可能。这个底盘支撑结构的处理速度为每分钟1.4米,通过一个长约400米的传送带上超过45个工作站。在这个过程中,它将配备模块、组件和子系统。底盘在3个维度上依次完成,组件要么是及时提供的,要么是在不同楼层的并行过程中生产的(例如墙板)。表3总结了主要概念和重要事实。下面将对这些概念和参数进行描述和分析。

Design for Industrialized and Automated Customization


The product structure and its management along the whole life cycle (Lindemann, et al., 2006) is the most crucial and most complex issue in the process chain, in customized prefabrication of individual buildings. The structure has to be developed in respect of the needs of automated production and extended customer integration. Sekisui Heim has already realized this at the beginnings of large scale prefabrication in the 1960’s and developed specific fabrication oriented designs and product structures. (Figure 3)

产品结构及其在整个生命周期中的管理(Lindemann, et al., 2006)是单个建筑定制预制过程链中最关键和最复杂的问题。必须根据自动化生产和扩展客户集成的需要来开发该结构。Sekisui Heim早在20世纪60年代就已经意识到这一点,并开发了以制造为导向的设计和产品结构。(图3)

Figure 3: Sekisui Heim’s component kit is based on a steel frame chassis being sent onto moving production lines for subsequent completion. An average house consists of 10-15 of those prefabricated units.

图3:Sekisui Heim的组件套件是基于一个钢框架底盘,它被送到移动的生产线上以便后续完成。一所普通的房子由10-15个这样的预制单元组成。

• Hierarchical Decomposition: The hierarchically structured component kit of Sekisui is based on the combination of steel frame units (Unit Method), in order to achieve the desired arrangement of a house. In general, ten to fifteen units were combined to a complete house. The steel frame units are used as “chassis”, streaming through the factory and being finished on specially designed production lines from all sides. Similar to a “chassis” in the car industry, the steel frame unit later also serves as the bearing structure. The technical infill like installations, cables and pipes can be seen as sub-components being attached or mounted to the “chassis” just-in-time.


• Open Engineering System: OES means that open component system kits have the ability to be further developed or transformed into new product models or product lines by a company’s system designer or engineer (Cormier, et al., 2008). About ten new housing models and about 400 modifications and improvements of existing solutions are introduced annually by the Japanese company Sekisui Heim (Furuse, et al., 2006), making it necessary that the component systems are based on OES principles.

开放工程系统:OES是指开放组件系统套件能够被公司的系统设计师或工程师进一步开发或转化为新的产品模型或产品线(Cormier, et al., 2008)。日本Sekisui Heim公司每年都会推出大约10种新的住宅模型,以及大约400种对现有解决方案的改进和改进(Furuse等人,2006年),这使得组件系统必须基于OES原理。

Strategies of Customer Integration


The design of the configuration process plays a crucial role in any customization strategy, as it links the knowledge about the customer and his preferences to product structure, subsequent fabrication and delivery process. Generally, we can distinguish between on-line and off-line configuration. The on-line configuration is a tool, directly used by the customer, whereas the off-line configuration process is guided and finally performed by a company member, according to customer demands (Lindemann, et al., 2006). As buildings comprise complex products, so far, major Japanese prefab house builders use the off-line configuration method.

配置流程的设计在任何定制策略中都扮演着至关重要的角色,因为它将客户及其偏好的知识与产品结构、随后的制造和交付流程联系起来。一般来说,我们可以区分联机配置和脱机配置。在线配置是客户直接使用的工具,而离线配置过程是由公司成员根据客户需求指导并最终执行的(Lindemann, et al., 2006)。由于建筑包含复杂的产品,到目前为止,日本主要的预制房屋建筑商使用离线配置的方法。

• Regional Relation Design: Sekisui Heim offers various types of houses and many of them fit to a specific cultural or climatic region within Japan. In order to get closer to the customers, regionally based model parks have been established in strategically important areas, as well. Accordingly, factories are placed in various areas and produce houses according to the demands of the surrounding area. Nevertheless, those strategically placed factories are integrated into greater, nationwide production clusters and logistical structures.

区域关系设计:Sekisui Heim提供了各种类型的房屋,其中许多适合日本特定的文化或气候区域。为了更接近客户,在具有重要战略意义的地区也建立了区域性的示范园。因此,工厂被布置在不同的区域,并根据周围区域的需求建造房屋。然而,这些处于战略位置的工厂被整合到更大的、全国性的生产集群和物流结构中。

• Customer Co-Creation: Most Japanese prefab companies hold research and development centres being open to customers. The majority of the R&D centres accommodate showrooms and/ or sample living areas where customers can choose components, furnishing or configurations. Additionally, customers can take part in certain tests regarding ergonomics and preferences in order to finally co-design the house in an interactive process. Clients are free to choose the degree of customer integration, always determining the price. Continuous process improvements are aimed at lowering cost impacts of a gradual increase of individualization.


Supply Chain Management


Innovative strategies for logistics determine the efficiency of the resource flow. Important aspects of successful value creation concern the control of the structures which bring resources to the company’s value creation system, as well as the resource-circulation within the company’s production processes.. Just-in-time and just-in-sequence industrialized production lower input resources and inventory. Advanced Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a pre-condition for the successful use of tools like Sekisui Heim’s “HAPPS” (Heim Automated Parts Pickup System). Today, Sekisui Heim’s BIM-System allows a translation up to 95% of CAD-data and further user-input data into logistics, production and assembly information. Further BIM-data is used to schedule and manage maintenance, upgrade and remanufacturing during the building’s utilization phase.

物流创新战略决定了资源流动的效率。成功的价值创造的重要方面涉及对为公司价值创造系统带来资源的结构的控制,以及公司生产过程中的资源循环。准时制和按顺序制工业化生产降低了投入资源和库存。先进的建筑信息建模(BIM)是成功使用Sekisui Heim s HAPPS (Heim Automated Parts Pickup System)等工具的前提条件。如今,Sekisui Heim的bim系统可以将高达95%的cad数据以及进一步的用户输入数据翻译成物流、生产和装配信息。此外,BIM-data还可用于规划和管理大楼使用阶段的维护、升级和再制造。

The components and materials are supplied from suppliers and from the warehouse just-in-time and just-in-sequence to a small “preparation” area right next to the production line so that no further transportation to the production line is needed (Figure 4).


Figure 4: Exterior and Interior view of one of the two supply sides which flank the production line. The components and materials are supplied from the left side just in time and just in sequence to a small “preparation” area – from there it goes directly to the production line on the right side.


• Automated Component Selection: The transition of Sekisui Heim into a highly productive company was initially enabled by its advanced IT-based ERP-System called HAPPS. As explained above, all houses are made of ten to fifteen steel frame units, all finished individually according to customer demands. This means that each unit, prefabricated in the factory, is different. Therefore, it is a complex process to select and pick-up about 30,000 components correctly for each house, out of about 300,000 available components creating the solution space, and feed them to the production line just-in-sequence (Furuse, et al., 2006).

自动化组件选择:Sekisui Heim之所以能够转型为一家高效的公司,最初是因为它的先进的基于it的erp系统,即HAPPS。如前所述,所有房屋都是由10到15个钢框架单元组成,都是根据客户的要求单独完成的。这意味着,每个单元,预制在工厂,是不同的。因此,从创建解决方案空间的约30万个可用组件中,正确地为每家选择和提取约3万个组件,并按顺序将它们送到生产线上,是一个复杂的过程(Furuse, et al., 2006)。

• Automated Task and Production Scheduling: HAPPS is a parameter based system supporting the whole workflow: configuration, planning, receipt of order, logistics, fabrication and delivery. It helps to generate parts, component structures and parts lists from CAD floor plans (Furuse, et al., 2006). Based on the information generated from the CAD models, logistic and production processes are controlled almost automatically.

自动任务和生产调度:HAPPS是一个基于参数的系统,支持整个工作流程:配置、计划、订单接收、物流、制造和交付。它有助于从CAD平面图生成零件、组件结构和零件清单(Furuse, et al., 2006)。基于CAD模型生成的信息,物流和生产过程几乎是自动控制的。

Prefabrication and Production Systems


Both the factory organization of Sekisui and Toyota are based on an assembly line production, where the moving steel frame units are customized according to floor plans, functionality, technical infills and the finishing, demanded by an individual customer. Sub-components are fabricated in parallel processes on various floors. Sekisui Heim achieves up to 80% factory prefabrication, whereas Toyota Home reaches up to 85%. A factory of Sekisui Heim has a daily capacity of approximately 150 steel frame units, which is equal to ten to fifteen houses, on the 400 meter-production-line.

Sekisui和丰田的工厂组织都是基于装配线生产,移动的钢架单元是根据每个客户的要求根据平面图、功能、技术填充和精加工定制的。子组件在不同的楼层上以并行的方式组装。Sekisui Heim实现高达80%的工厂预制,而丰田家居高达85%。积水海姆的一家工厂,在这条400米的生产线上,日生产能力约为150个钢框架单元,相当于10至15间房屋。

• Automated Steel Frame Production: One of the basic features is the automated assembling and welding station. Ceiling elements, flooring elements and columns are fed into this station, followed by automatic welding into a frame, which is used as chassis and bearing structure during the further completion process on the production line. (Figure 5)


Figure 5: Automated assembly and welding of steel profiles to units.


• Production Flow System: After the automated welding process, the steel frame chassis is streaming through the factory from work step to work step, until it will be finished with all installations (Figures 6). The factories of Sekisui and Toyota have gates on both sides of the assembly lines in order to receive material, parts, components and prefabricated bath or kitchen modules, required for the customized production of individual units. All of them arrive just-in-time and just-in-sequence by cooperating suppliers (Figure 7).


Figure 6: On the 400m production line, the steel frame units (“chassis”) pass several workstations.


Figure 7: Insertion of prepared elements and by suppliers (e.g. Toto, Inax) prefabricated bath modules into the chassis unit.


• Pre-Installation: The pre-installation of furniture and cables is an important part of the production strategy of Sekisui and Toyota. The higher the degree of the technical installation, the more efficient is the prefabrication. The factory environment is the perfect place for a fast and highly qualified installation of technical infrastructure, further components and sub-systems. The units are processed and finished 3-dimensionally from various sides.


• 0-Waste Factories: In contrast to conventional construction, a minimum of waste was generated throughout the process. Both Sekisui and Toyota aimed at zero-waste factories. This could be achieved with the supply of modules fitting into the product structure without further processing or cut-off waste. Another step to reach the target of zero wastage is the fastidiously sorting of material waste for reuse and recycling (Figure 8). In contrast to conventional production, the industrialized production is highly sophisticated in matters of resource circulation controlling. (Linner and Bock, 2010)


Figure 8: Materials as e.g. insulations are supplied to the factory already in the fitting sizes minimizing cutoff waste. The remaining waste is sorted fastidiously in up to 40 categories.


• Quality Oriented Production: Additionally, to quality controls performed by robots and highly trained and qualified staff, the quality is being inspected rigorously after each production step (Figure 9). Every company has developed quality checklists with 200 to 300 different items for each house, in order to reach an early detection of mistakes and save time and cost. Sekisui Heim’s aim was to design the production procedure in a way which would handover a 100% error-free product in order to enhance the companies’ reliability.

面向质量的生产:此外,质量控制由机器人和高度经过培训合格的员工,后被检查的质量是严格每个生产步骤(图9)。每个公司开发了质量检查清单为每个房子200到300个不同的项目,以达到早期发现错误和节省时间和成本。Sekisui Heim的目标是设计出一种100%无差错产品的生产流程,以提高公司的可靠性。

Figure 9: After each station in the production process the units, and attached materials undergo a rigorous quality check.


Rapid On-Site Deployment


At the last workstation within the factory, the finished modules are prepared for transport (Figure 10). Completed units are delivered on-site just-in-time and just-in-sequence by the companies’ transport groups. The finished steel frame units and the prefabricated roof modules were assembled within one day (Figure 11). This means that the house becomes water proof and draughtproof immediately and construction failures and quality losses are thus reduced to a minimum. Within the protected house, specially trained assembly workers (neither Sekisui nor Toyota employs unskilled low cost workers complete house and installation in less than one month. After the assembly of units within one day, minor interior works and outside facilities are completed within a month.


Figure 10: At the last workstation within the factory, the finished modules are prepared for transport.

Figure 11: On-Site assembly of 80% prefabricated House


Life Cycle Management and Customer Relationship


Attracting and retaining clients is essential for the success of any customization oriented strategy. Through the customization process, the companies receive detailed information about the customer in order to establish a strong relationship. (Piller, 2006). In the phase were a house is used, the knowledge about the customer and the delivered product can be used for efficient long-term maintenance (Linner and Bock, 2009). Moreover, the established relationship to the customer could be used for after sales-services and additional life-cycle oriented value chains.

吸引和留住客户对于任何以定制为导向的战略的成功都是至关重要的。通过定制的过程,公司会收到客户的详细信息,以建立牢固的关系。(皮,2006)。在房屋被使用的阶段,关于客户和交付产品的知识可以用于有效的长期维护(Linner和Bock, 2009)。此外,与客户建立的关系可以用于售后服务和附加的面向生命周期的价值链。

• Handover: The handover of a house from Sekisui or Toyota is designed as an experience and is accompanied by the typical Japanese service attitude. In most cases, the move to the new home is performed or at least supported by the companies with none or just a few extra cost. When the house is handed over, the customers also receives a guiding handbook/ manual for the new home.


• Quality certificates and warranty: In order to prove the performance, quality and durability of the house and its sub-systems, the customer receives quality and warranty certificates during the handover of the house. As all individual houses have been fabricated in a highly controlled factory environment, and all pre-production models have absolved rigorous quality tests similar to the automotive industry, a high performance concerning durability and earthquake resistance can be guaranteed.


• Regular Inspection and long-term Maintenance: Toyota gives a warranty of 60 years on basic structure, facade, walls and roof, 30 years on all other elements and five years on frequently used elements as floors. During that time, regular inspections by specially trained maintenance staff ensure that damages are repaired and claims are avoided proactively. Additionally, the customers can choose among different long-term maintenance packages.


Service Innovation: Bundling of Buildings with Services


Nowadays, buildings are not only related to their physical existence but they become subject to services related to them. Services can also be used to customize products and create individual and exceptional experiences (Gilmore and Pine, 2000). Japanese companies increasingly extend their performance focusing on “services” related to the building’s utilization phase. The Japanese prefabrication company Misawa Homes was the first company which introduced a “Home Guarantee System” (1962) and a “After Sales and Maintenance Services System” (1972). All other major prefabrication companies followed this strategy during the 1970’s. By establishing service systems, the companies can use the prefabricated buildings’ inherent modularity for upgrades, renovation, rearrangement and re-customization services (Bock, et al., 2009). Furthermore, they can offer extraordinary warranty and maintenance services due to the detailed plans and the quality achieved by factory production. Further, customized energy solutions and personal assistance technologies supporting daily life, health and handicapped or aged people (Linner, et al., 2011) are emerging building performance fields, which allow prefabrication companies to use and multiply the tremendous knowledge about the customer, gathered during configuration or rearrangement procedures.

如今,建筑不仅与它们的物理存在有关,而且成为与之相关的服务的对象。服务还可以用于定制产品和创造个人和特殊的体验(Gilmore和Pine, 2000)。日本公司越来越多地扩展他们的表现,关注与建筑的使用阶段相关的服务。日本预制建筑公司三泽住宅(Misawa Homes)是第一个引入住房担保系统(1962年)和售后和维修服务系统(1972年)的公司。在20世纪70年代,所有其他主要的预制建筑公司都遵循了这一策略。通过建立服务体系,企业可以利用预制建筑固有的模块化进行升级、改造、重新安排和重新定制服务(Bock, et al., 2009)。此外,由于详细的计划和工厂生产所达到的质量,他们可以提供特别的保修和维修服务。此外,支持日常生活、健康和残疾人或老年人的个性化能源解决方案和个人辅助技术(Linner等人,2011年)正在成为新兴的建筑性能领域,这使得预制建筑公司能够利用并扩大在配置或重新安排过程中收集到的关于客户的大量知识。

• Upgrade Services: The so-called “Stock Refurbishing Business” of Sekisui exemplarily illustrates the service strategy developed by all major Japanese prefabrication companies. Based on detailed plans and data about the delivered housing products, laid down in BIM, buildings are continuously evaluated. Information about components which should be inspected or changed are generated and reported automatically, via a custom software system and then forwarded to the company staff. The company actively manages the information about delivered products and continuously offers upgrades of interior and exterior design and finishing to the customer.


• Renovation and Reorganization Services: Both Sekisui and Toyota offer the option to replace or add units due to changes in matters of lifestyle or household size and demands. Nevertheless, reorganization could still be simplified and the systems’ modularity, standardization and joining methods offer great potentials for continuous rearrangement services. Those services could take up and carry on the intense customer relation, established through the initial customization process for additional and continuous value creation.


• Customizable Energy Platforms: In 2008, Sekisui Heim started to work with the authors of this chapter on an idea of a customizable, pre-fabricated and partly self-sustaining energy and resource platform, situated beneath a modular home, a so-called “Mainboard”, inspired by the principle of computing, which accommodates and electronically controls all water instalments and energy components required for a household. The system is designed in a manner that allows multiple “Mainboard” platforms interacting between each other, in order to form a synergetic relationship between a “Mainboard” cluster and its individual components. Those platforms can be customized as well as re-arranged allowing for continuous services through Sekisui Heim and cooperating suppliers.

可定制的能源平台:2008年,Sekisui海姆开始处理这一章的作者在一个可定制的一个想法,预制的,部分是自我维持的能源和资源平台,坐落在一个模块化的家里,所谓的主板,灵感来自于计算的原则,适应和电子控制所有水分期付款和能源组件需要一个家庭。系统的设计方式允许多个主板平台相互作用,以形成一个主板集群和它的单个组件之间的协同关系。这些平台可以定制,也可以重新安排,允许Sekisui Heim和合作供应商提供持续的服务。

• Personal Assistance Technologies: The Toyota PAPI Dream House (Shimizu, 2005), designed and prefabricated based on Toyota Home’s cubicle space frames, was co-designed by Ken Sakamura, Professor for Ubiquitous Computing at the University of Tokyo. Courtyard, entrance, kitchen, bathroom, sleeping room and all other rooms have been integrated with sensors, actuators and assistance technologies in order to support the inhabitants. The house is a “concept house” showing Toyota Home’s vision of the future house. Microsystems have the ability to facilitate household related services and thus help prefabrication companies to extend their business into the delivery of household related physical and digital services. Further, Daiwa House cooperates with companies as Cyberdyne (HAL) and Toto (Intelligent Heath Toilet) to develop assistance technologies and advanced health care service systems which can be connected to the prefabricated buildings. (Linner and Bock, 2010)

个人辅助技术:丰田PAPI梦想之家(清水,2005),基于丰田家的隔间空间框架设计和预制,由肯Sakamura设计,他是东京大学的普适计算教授。庭院、入口、厨房、浴室、卧室和所有其他房间都集成了传感器、驱动器和辅助技术,以支持居民。这是一个概念住宅,展示了丰田公司对未来住宅的愿景。微系统有能力促进与家庭有关的服务,从而帮助预制制造公司将其业务扩展到提供与家庭有关的物理和数字服务。此外,大和房舍还与Cyberdyne (HAL)和Toto(智能健康厕所)等公司合作,开发可连接到预制建筑的辅助技术和先进医疗服务系统。(林纳和博克,2010)

• Reverse Logistics and Re-Customization: All buildings of Sekisui Heim can be accepted as trade-ins for a new Sekisui Heim building. Therefore, the deconstruction process and remanufacturing process have been designed as a modified reversed version of the production and assembly process. For deconstruction, joints between steel frame units are initially eased, and the house is then transported to a special dismantling factory unit by unit, where the outdated sub-components are dismantled and brought into advanced re-use cycles (Sekisui Heim, 2009). For customized and user-integrating prefabrication, the bare steel frame units are inspected and subsequently fed into the production process again.

逆向物流和重新定制:塞基斯海姆的所有建筑都可以作为新的塞基斯海姆建筑的替代品。因此,解构过程和再制造过程被设计为生产和装配过程的一个修正的反向版本。为了进行解构,钢框架单元之间的连接处最初被放松,然后房屋被逐个单元运输到一个特殊的拆除工厂,在那里,过时的子组件被拆除,并进入先进的再利用循环(Sekisui Heim, 2009)。为了定制和用户集成的预制,裸露的钢框架单元将被检查,然后再次进入生产过程。

In summary, the presented service strategies give a hint in which direction the evolution of large-scale industrialized customization in the Japanese building industry advances. The focus shifts on “Service Design” related to the building’s life cycle. The traditional distinction between “hard” physical buildings and “soft” household/ owner’s life-related services, will be overcome in favour of the creation of advanced product-service systems. This extension of the operational scope, moreover, gives Japanese prefabrication companies the chance to make recurring use of configuration data and built up customer relationships.


Importance of Service Design for future Housing


The findings presented above show that Japans prefabrication industry rather behaves and develops like a “production industry” than a “construction industry”. Similar to many other high-tech industries, Japan’s prefabrication industry incorporates latest technologies and combines automation, products and services into complex value-capturing systems.


Besides the possibility to customise the building to individual needs (which is also a kind of service), Sekisui Heim’s buildings distinguish themselves from conventionally built buildings through services that accompany the physical product. Currently, handover services, warranty and long-term maintenance services, comprise standard services accompanying any building. As Sekisui Heim charges only a very small amount for those services, their main business goal is to attract the customers. New services as renovation and reorganization services, reverse logistics and re-customization are currently start-ups that cannot yet be quantified. However, it can be expected that those services not only lower the adoption barrier but can also be used to build up continuous revenue streams.

除了根据个人需求定制建筑的可能性(这也是一种服务),Sekisui Heim的建筑通过伴随物理产品的服务区别于传统建筑。现时,楼宇交接服务、保修服务及长期维修服务包括所有楼宇的标准服务。由于Sekisui Heim对这些服务的收费非常低,所以他们的主要业务目标是吸引客户。革新重组服务、逆向物流和再定制等新服务目前尚不能量化。然而,可以预期的是,这些服务不仅可以降低采用障碍,还可以用来建立持续的收入流。

Interestingly, all mentioned service models that Sekisui Heim strives for, are directly linked to the modular and industrial production of buildings. The celebration of the handover accompanied by a manual, illustrates that the house is seen as a product. Warranty and maintenance can only be guaranteed for such a long time because the company has fabricated them under high-quality standards within the factory. Upgrade and renovation services are closely related to the modular design of the buildings by the fact that the company holds the production and customer data generated through customization and production phase. Finally, Sekisui Heim, being part of Sekisui Chemical, is a huge and reliable company which is likely to survive the life cycle period of each of the delivered buildings. Thus, large scale industrialization, as in the case of Sekisui Heim, builds a solid basis for bundling life cycle oriented services to buildings.

有趣的是,所有提到的Sekisui Heim所追求的服务模式,都与建筑的模块化和工业化生产直接相关。交接仪式配有说明书,说明这所房子被视为一种产品。保修和维修只能保证这么长时间,因为他们是公司在工厂内按照高质量标准制造的。升级和翻新服务与建筑的模块化设计紧密相关,公司拥有定制和生产阶段产生的生产和客户数据。最后,Sekisui Heim,作为Sekisui化学的一部分,是一个巨大而可靠的公司,很有可能在每一个交付的建筑的生命周期中生存下来。因此,大规模的工业化,就像Sekisui Heim的案例一样,为将面向生命周期的服务捆绑到建筑上打下了坚实的基础。

The linking of services to products, which Sekisui Home and other Japanese prefabrication companies increasingly focus on, becomes more interesting when concerning general developments. More and more business and service concepts aim at creating the basis for product-service-systems (Sakao and Lindahl, 2009) based on micro system technology, which is integrated into objects and environments. It is necessary to consider especially the expansion of ICT in the field of health and the development towards eHealth (Jähn and Nagel, 2004) (Telemonitoring, Telecare, Teletherapy). Primarily, the demographic change, by which Japan will be particularly affected, will necessitate service technologies that are inbuilt in living environments (Wichert and Eberhardt, 2011). In fact, at the moment, many product service systems do not yet aim at custodial or medical services but at services of the field of prevention,fitness and wellness. Still, this can be seen as an intermediate stage towards integrating telemedical services and services that aim at teleconsultation into the living environment. A lot of the services can be provided digitally, and even physically performed services can be supervised digitally, in order to be carried out in a more efficient way and in high quality. Furthermore, services that accompany products provide the possibility to achieve a high degree of individualization, e.g. of a standard product (Chesbrough, 2011).

从总体发展来看,Sekisui Home和其他日本预制建筑公司日益关注的服务与产品之间的联系变得更加有趣。越来越多的商业和服务理念致力于创建基于微系统技术的产品服务系统的基础(Sakao和Lindahl, 2009),并将其集成到对象和环境中。有必要特别考虑在卫生领域扩大信息通信技术和发展电子卫生(Jahn和Nagel, 2004年)(远程监护、远程治疗、远程治疗)。主要的是,日本将受到特别影响的人口变化,将使生活环境中固有的服务技术成为必要(Wichert和Eberhardt, 2011)。事实上,目前许多产品服务系统的目标还不是监护或医疗服务,而是预防、健身和健康领域的服务。尽管如此,这可以被看作是将远程医疗服务和以远程会诊为目标的服务整合到生活环境中的一个中间阶段。许多服务可以数字化地提供,甚至可以数字化地监督实际执行的服务,以便以更高效和高质量地执行。此外,伴随产品的服务提供了实现高度个性化的可能性,例如标准产品(Chesbrough, 2011)。

Due to Sekisui Heim, the control of the life cycle and accompanied services for the upkeep of functionality of the building via Computer Aided Facility Management (May, 2006), is basically forestalled. Objects in the living environment that are more and more prevalently equipped with micro system technology, form an ideal interface for initializing these services (Weber, et al., 2005). Besides their content, a new aspect of the services today is the possibility to create modular service packages (Meier and Piller, 2011) from the entirety of services that can be adapted to the individual case of need (Service-Bundling). In general, services concerning the household can be divided into the following categories:

由于Sekisui Heim,通过计算机辅助设施管理(2006年5月)对生命周期的控制和伴随的建筑功能维护服务(2006年5月)基本上被阻止了。生活环境中越来越普遍地装备了微系统技术的对象,为初始化这些服务形成了理想的界面(Weber, et al., 2005)。除了内容之外,服务的一个新方面是,可以从可以适应不同需求的全部服务(服务捆绑)中创建模块化服务包(Meier和Piller, 2011)。一般来说,有关家庭的服务可分为以下几类:

1. Classic services in the household for supporting activities of daily life (washing, laundry)

2. Security Services (theft prevention, fire protection)

3. Care Service, Emergency Service

4. Services in the field of Ageing and Care

5. Maintenance Services

6. Services in the field of fitness and health (physiotherapists, doctors, fitness instructors)

7. Services for supply and mobility

1. 支援日常生活活动的经典家居服务(洗衣、洗衣)
2. 保安服务(防盗、防火)
4. 老龄及护理方面的服务
5. 维护服务
6. 健身和健康领域的服务(物理治疗师、医生、健身指导员)
7. 供应和流动性服务

For example, furniture systems have been equipped with sensors and particularly aim at service adoption in categories 4 and 6. A basis for services on the other categories can be provided by integrated micro system technology and a data platform (Larson, et al., 2004; Linner, et al., 2011). With the assistance of micro system technology and data platforms, the efficiency of the provision of these services can be enhanced enormously. As a continuative interpretation of the results of Behrens (et al., 2010), the initializing of services can principally happen in three different ways:

例如,家具系统已经装备了传感器,特别针对第4类和第6类的服务采用。集成微系统技术和数据平台可以为其他类别的服务提供基础(Larson等,2004年;Linner等,2011)。借助微系统技术和数据平台,可以极大地提高这些服务的提供效率。作为对贝伦斯(et al., 2010)结果的连续解释,服务的初始化主要有三种不同的方式:

• Manual call of the services (television, remote, pad)

• Autonomous or partly autonomous initiated by sensors (motion sensors, monitoring of vital signs etc.)

• Initiating based on interpretation algorithms and fusion of information from different sensor systems and sub-systems (e.g. Ambient Intelligence)


Microsystems and data collection platforms can increasingly be established in the living environment. In terms of the imaginable services, this field is not yet fully developed, providing hence the possibility of novel value creation models. The Japanese prefabrication companies have identified this correlation and will probably increasingly develop services focusing on living, in order to set themselves apart from their competitors. Therefore, based on the proposed case study it can be recommended that any prefabrication project that aims at large-scale production has to consider and integrate each of the following parameters in order to be successful:


• The socio-technical culture in the construction society

• The customer integration in the whole process in a transparent and understandable way

• The impact of the modular structure on customer choice, production and service

• The latest production technology and supply chain management concepts

• The digital chain for all partners and phases

• The life cycle, household and health related service in the business model of prefabrication

• The equipment of buildings with as much micro-systems technology as possible in order to support service provision




In contrast to many examples of prefabrication published so far, the Japanese prefabrication industry is currently the only one which operates in large scale in terms of production volumes, and extensively uses flow line-like production and automation. As reviewed literature about the Japanese prefabrication industry did not provide sufficient information about the development process of such a powerful prefabrication industry, the authors have done field surveys and visited R&D centres, sales and production facilities of all major Japanese prefabrication companies. A case study of one of those companies presented in this paper revealed that Japanese prefabrication industry has recognized the importance of after sales services since the 1970’s. Nowadays, on the basis of large scale industrialization, further attempts to shift the focus from delivering products towards “services”, related to the building’s utilization phase, enhance the companies’ customer relation and customer inclusion capabilities. Concepts and parameters relevant to the evolution of large-scale industrialization of the Japanese prefabrication industry have been identified and analyzed. Furthermore, key strategies, processes and technologies deployed in the industry, have been identified and described using Sekisui Heim as an example, as this company has deployed industrialization and automation consequently. It has been outlined that services which accompany the hard physical product before delivery or during the building’s life cycle, play an important role. Also, it has been found that most services are closely related and enabled by consequent industrialization (e.g. modularity enables rearrangement services). Finally, the growing importance of services for future housing has been discussed. Although the impact of new services on the sales and production volumes is currently is unknown, the marketing research divisions of Sekisui Heim investigate the customer acceptance of the solution space offered in a six-month cycle, in order to adjust their products and strategies. The results of these investigations are fed back into design development stage and continuously improve the products. During the development of new models and the marketing of existing ones, it is also usual that customers are invited to visit one of the research and development centres, in order to test various parts of the housing systems, using criteria such as usability and accessibility. However, customer needs are not static and have to be served continuously. Sekisui Heim has realized this matter and worked on extending the degree of customer integration into the direction of services, and integrating the customer throughout the life cycle phase of the produced house via services. Currently, Sekisui Heim (as well as other Japanese prefabrication companies) gradually extends its’ performance focus on “services” related to the building’s utilization phase, trying thus to remain in touch with the customer, serving his changing needs. Sekisui Heim thus now no longer only offers long-term maintenance service packages and upgrade services bundled to their housing products, but also allows deconstruction, re-customization and relocation of its prefabricated buildings, and a variety of other service under development in its R&D centres.

与目前已经出版的许多预制例子相比,日本的预制行业是目前唯一一个在产量上大规模运作,并广泛使用流水线式生产和自动化的行业。由于关于日本预制建筑行业的文献并没有提供足够的信息来说明这个强大的预制建筑行业的发展过程,作者做了实地调查,参观了日本所有主要预制建筑公司的研发中心、销售和生产设施。通过对其中一家公司的案例分析,可以发现日本的预制业从20世纪70年代开始就认识到售后服务的重要性。如今,在大规模工业化的基础上,进一步尝试将重心从提供产品转向服务,涉及到建筑的s利用阶段,提升公司的客户关系和客户包容能力。确定并分析了与日本预制工业大规模工业化发展相关的概念和参数。此外,以Sekisui Heim公司为例,已经确定并描述了该行业中部署的关键战略、流程和技术,因为该公司已经部署了工业化和自动化。在交付前或建筑生命周期中,伴随硬物理产品的服务扮演着重要的角色。此外,人们发现,大多数服务都是紧密相关的,并通过随后的产业化实现(例如,模块化支持重新安排服务)。最后,对未来住房服务日益增长的重要性进行了讨论。虽然新服务对销量和产量的影响目前尚不清楚,但Sekisui Heim的市场研究部门以6个月为周期调查客户对所提供的解决方案空间的接受程度,以调整其产品和战略。这些调查的结果反馈到设计开发阶段,并不断改进产品。在开发新模型和推销现有模型的过程中,通常还会邀请客户参观其中的一个研究和发展中心,以便使用可用性和可达性等标准测试住房系统的各个部分。然而,客户的需求并不是一成不变的,必须持续地提供服务。Sekisui Heim已经意识到这一点,并致力于将客户整合的程度扩展到服务的方向,并通过服务将客户整合到生产屋的整个生命周期阶段。目前,Sekisui Heim(以及其他日本预制建筑公司)逐渐将其性能重点扩展到与建筑使用阶段相关的服务上,试图以此保持与客户的联系,满足客户不断变化的需求。因此,Sekisui Heim现在不再仅仅提供长期的维护服务和升级服务捆绑到他们的住房产品,而且还允许拆除,重新定制和重新安置其预制建筑,以及在其研发中心开发的各种其他服务。



We thank the AUSMIP Consortium (ICI Education Cooperation Program, EU-Japan) and the Professors and Institutions involved in it for supporting the proposed research. Particularly, we thank Prof. S. Matsumura, Prof. T. Yashiro and Dr. Ken Shibata for supporting us with information and assisting on organizing the research trips. Further, we thank Sekisui Heim, Toyota Home, Daiwa House and Sekisui House for granting us access to their factories and research centres. Last but not least, we thank the general management of Sekisui Heim for arranging meetings with system developers, researchers, sales persons and other company staff.

我们感谢AUSMIP联盟(ICI教育合作项目,EU-Japan)以及参与其中的教授和机构对这项研究的支持。特别要感谢松村教授、八代教授和柴田肯博士对我们的信息支持和组织考察之旅的协助。此外,我们感谢世kisui Heim、丰田之家、大和房建和世kisui房建允许我们进入他们的工厂和研究中心。最后但并非最不重要的是,我们感谢Sekisui Heim的综合管理安排与系统开发人员、研究人员、销售人员和其他公司员工的会议。



Andersson, R., Eckholm, A., Jonsson, C., Molnar, M., Larsson, R., 2010. ICT and BIM in Japanese Construction Industry. Samhällsbyggaren, [online] June 2010. Available at: http://www.vbyggaren.se/pdf_arkiv/Samhallsbyggaren_6_10.pdf [Accessed 05 September 2011]. pp. 46-51.

安德森,R。埃克霍尔姆,A., Jonsson, C., Molnar, M., Larsson, R., 2010。ICT与BIM在日本建筑业中的应用。Samhallsbyggaren,[在线]2010年6月。网址:http://www.vbyggaren.se/pdf_arkiv/Samhallsbyggaren_6_10.pdf[访问日期:2011年9月5日]。46-51页。

Baldwin, C., Clark, K., 2000. Design Rules – The Power of Modularity. Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

鲍德温,C.,克拉克,K., 2000。设计规则——模块化的力量。马萨诸塞州:麻省理工学院出版社。

Bergdoll, B., Christensen, P., 2008. Home Delivery – Fabricating the modern dwelling. [exhibition catalogue] Basel/ Boston/ Berlin: Birkhäuser.

Bergdoll, B., Christensen, P., 2008。送货上门-建造现代住宅。[展览目录]巴塞尔/波士顿/柏林:Birkhauser。

Bock, T., Linner, T., Lee, S., 2009. Integrated Industrialization Approach for lean On-/ Off-site Building Production and Resource Circulation, 7th World Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing. Madras, India 2-4 December 2009, Madras, Prof. M. S. Ananth.

博克,林纳,李,S, 2009。第七届世界可持续制造大会,精益/场外建筑生产和资源循环的一体化工业化方法。2009年12月2日至4日,马德拉斯,m.s. Ananth教授。

Bock, T., Linner, T., 2010. Off-site Industrialization – Process and Production Technologies – Towards Customised Automation and Robotics in Prefabrication of Concrete Elements. In: Girmscheid, G., Scheublin, F. eds. 2010. New Perspective in Industrialization in Construction – A State-of-the-Art Report. Zürich: Eigenverlag des IBB (Institut für Bauplanung und Baubetrieb) an der ETH Zürich. Ch. III, F.

博克,T.,林纳,T., 2010。非现场工业化——过程和生产技术——在预制混凝土构件方面走向定制自动化和机器人技术。In: Girmscheid, G., Scheublin, F. eds2010. 建筑业工业化的新视角-最先进的报告。苏黎世:本应属于苏黎世大学。Ch。第三,F。

Chesbrough, H., 2011. Open Services Innovation. Stadt: San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, A Wiley Imprint.

两,H。, 2011年。开放的服务创新。Stadt:旧金山:josey – bass, Wiley印记。

Forza, C., Salvador, F., 2007. Product Information Management for Mass Customization. New York: Palgrave Macmillian.

福尔扎,C.,萨尔瓦多,F., 2007。用于大规模定制的产品信息管理。纽约:帕尔格雷夫·麦克米伦。

Cormier, P., Olewnik, A., Kemper, L., 2008. An Approach to Quantifying Design Flexibility for Mass Customization. Proceedings of the ASME 2008 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. New York, USA, 3-6 August 2008, New York: IDETC/CIE.

Cormier, P., Olewnik, A., Kemper, L., 2008。面向大规模定制的设计灵活性量化方法。美国机械工程师学会(ASME) 2008国际设计工程技术会议和计算机与工程信息会议论文集。美国纽约,2008年8月3-6日,纽约:IDETC/CIE。

Daiwa House: http://www.daiwahouse.co.jp [Accessed 05 September 2011]


Daiwa House, research visit in 2008

Fujimoto, T., 1999. The Evolution of a Manufacturing System at Toyota. Oxford/ New York: Oxford University Press.


Furuse, J., Katano, M., 2006. Structuring of Sekisui Heim automated parts pickup system (HAPPS) to process individual floor plans, International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC). Tokyo, Japan, 3-5 Oktober 2006, Tokyo, Symposium Committee.

福瑞,J., Katano, M., 2006。构建Sekisui Heim自动化零件拾取系统(HAPPS)来处理单独的平面图,建筑自动化和机器人国际研讨会(ISARC)。2006年10月3日至5日,日本东京,研讨会组委会。

Gilmore, J., Pine, B., 2000. Markets of One. Creating Customer-Unique Value through Mass Costumization. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.


Girmscheid, G., Scheublin, F., 2010. New Perspective in Industrialization in Construction – A State-of-the-Art Report. Zürich: ETH Zürich and CIB.

Girmscheid, G., Scheublin, F., 2010。建筑业工业化的新视角-最先进的报告。苏黎世:苏黎世ETH和CIB。

Girmscheid, G., 2010. Off-site Production methods – Precast Plant Production. In: Girmscheid, G., Scheublin, F. eds. 2010. New Perspective in Industrialization in Construction – A State-of-the-Art Report. Zürich: Eigenverlag des IBB (Institut für Bauplanung und Baubetrieb) an der ETH Zürich. Ch. III, G.

Girmscheid G。2010。现场生产方法。预制工厂生产In: Girmscheid, G., Scheublin, F. eds2010. 建筑业工业化的新视角-最先进的报告。苏黎世:本应属于苏黎世大学。Ch。第三,G。

Habraken, J. ed., 2000. The Structure of the Ordinary – Form and Control in the Built Environment. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Habraken, J. ed, 2000。一般的结构形式和控制在建筑环境中。剑桥:麻省理工学院出版社。

Jähn, K., Nagel, E., 2004. eHealth. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

雅恩,肯,内格尔,E, 2004。电子健康。柏林:斯普林格出版社。

Johnson, W., 2008. Lessons from Japan: A comparative study of the market drivers for prefabrication in Japanese and UK private housing development. London: Master Thesis at University College London.

约翰逊,W。, 2008年。日本的教训:日本和英国私人住宅开发中预制件市场驱动因素的比较研究。伦敦:伦敦大学学院硕士论文。

Kendall, S., Teicher, J., 2000. Residential Open Building. London: E & FN Spon for International Council for Building Research (CIB).

肯达尔,泰歇,J, 2000。住宅建筑开放。伦敦:国际建筑研究委员会(CIB)的E & FN Spon。

Larson, K., Intille, S., McLeish, TJ., Beaudin, J., Williams, RE., 2004. Open Source Building – Reinventing Places of Living. BT Technology Journal, vol. 22(4), 187-200

Larson, Intille, S, McLeish, TJ。, Beaudin, J., Williams, RE, 2004。开源建筑——重新创造生活场所。BT技术期刊,第22卷第4期,187-200页

Lindemann, U., Reichwald, R., Piller, F., 2006. Individualized Products. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

林德曼,美国,赖克瓦尔德,R,皮勒,F, 2006年。个性化的产品。柏林:斯普林格出版社。

Linner, T., 2007. Prefabrication Strategies in Japan. Munich: Master Thesis.


Linner, T., Bock, T., 2009. Smart Customization in Architecture: Towards Mass Customization of Intelligent Buildings, Conference on Mass Customization, Personalization and Co-creation. Helsinki, Finnland, 4-8 October 2009, Helsinki, Piller F.

林纳,T.,博克,T., 2009。建筑中的智能定制:走向智能建筑的大规模定制、大规模定制会议、个性化与共创。赫尔辛基,芬兰,2009年10月4-8日,赫尔辛基

Linner, T., Bock, T., 2010. Enhanced Industrialized Customization Performance by Building Integrated Microsystems, 27th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC). Bratislava, Slowakei, 25-27 June 2010, Bratislava, Josef Gašparík.

林纳,T.博克,T., 2010。通过构建集成微系统提高工业化定制性能,第27届建筑自动化和机器人国际研讨会(ISARC)。布拉迪斯拉发,Slowakei, 2010年6月25日至27日,布拉迪斯拉发,约瑟夫Gašparik。

Linner, T., Kranz, M., Roalter, L., Bock, T., 2011. Robotic and Ubiquitous Technologies for Welfare Habitat. Journal of Habitat Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 101-110.

Linner, T., Kranz M., Roalter, L., Bock, T., 2011。机器人和无处不在的福利栖息地技术。栖息地工程学报,第3卷,第1期,第101-110页。

Matsumura, S., 2007. Research in prefabrication. [interview and discussion] (personal discussion February 2007).


May M., 2006. IT im Facility Management erfolgreich einsetzen. 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer Verlag.


Meier, R., Piller, T., 2011. Systematisierung von Strategien zur Individualisierung von Dienstleistungen. München: Arbeitsberichte des Lehrstuhls für Allgemeine und Industrielle Betriebswirtschaftslehre an der Technischen Universität München.

迈耶,R。,皮勒,T., 2011。将个人制定的策略系统化。德国慕尼黑:德国慕尼黑技术大学的化学和工业部门。

Ohno, T., 1988. Toyota Production System – beyond large scale production. Massachusetts: Productivity Press.

Ohno, T。,1988年。丰田生产系统——超越大规模生产。麻萨诸塞州:生产力出版社。

Piller, F., 2006. Mass Customization – Ein wettbewerbsstrategisches Konzept im Informationszeitalter. 4th ed. Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universitätsverlag, p. 229.


Sakao, T., Lindahl, M., 2009. Introduction to Product/ Service-System Design. London: Springer-Verag.

Sakao T., Lindahl M., 2009。产品/服务系统设计简介。伦敦:Springer-Verag。

Sekisui Heim: http://www.sekisui.co.jp/ [Accessed 05 September 2011]

Sekisui Heim: http://www.sekisui.co.jp/[浏览于2011年9月5日]

Sekisui Heim, research visits in 2008, 2009 and 2010

Sekisui Heim,研究访问,2008年,2009年和2010年

Sekisui House: http://www.sekisuihouse.co.jp/ [Accessed 05 September 2011]

Sekisui House: http://www.sekisuihouse.co.jp/[访问2011年9月5日]

Sekisui House, research visits in 2008 and 2009


Shimizu, N., 2005. A House of Sustainability: PAPI – Intelligent House in the Age of Ubiquitous Computing. Architecture and Urbanism (AU), Special Issue December 2005.


Behrens, H., Fahl, P., Trage, M., 2010. Standards für wohnungsbegleitende Dienstleistungen im Kontext des demografischen Wandels und der Potenziale der Mikrosystemtechnik – Das Projekt STADIWAMI. In: Tagungsband des 3. Deutschen AAL-Kongresses – Assistenzsysteme im Dienste des Menschen: zuhause und unterwegs. Berlin/ Offenbach: VDE-Verlag.

贝伦斯,H., Fahl, P., Trage, M., 2010。这些标准是用来说明人口统计和潜在的技术问题的。入:Tagungsband des 3。Deutschen AAL-Kongresses – assistenzsystem是门:主人和主人。路透柏林/奥芬巴赫:VDE-Verlag。

Toyota Home: http://www.toyotahome.co.jp/ [Accessed 05 September 2011]


Toyota Home, research visits in 2008, 2009 and 2010


Wichert, R., Eberhardt, B., 2011. Ambient Assisted Living. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

威赫特,R.,埃伯哈特,B., 2011。环境辅助生活。柏林:斯普林格出版社。

Wimmer, R., 2009. Strategieentwicklung für eine industrielle Serienfertigung ökologischer Passivhäuser, Bericht aus Energie und Umweltforschung. Wien: Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie.


Weber, W., Rabaery, J., Aarts, E., 2005. Ambient Intelligence. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

韦伯,W., Rabaery, J., Aarts, E., 2005。环境智能。柏林:斯普林格出版社。

本文来自网络,不代表钢构人的立场,转载请注明出处。搜索工程类文章,就用钢构人网站。 https://www.ganggouren.com/2021/08/344a3b6fcf/



作者: ganggouren



您的电子邮箱地址不会被公开。 必填项已用 * 标注




在线咨询: QQ交谈

邮箱: 1356745727@qq.com