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模块化建筑-英标/欧标技术综述

Modular construction

模块化建筑


‘Modular construction’ is a term used to describe the use of factory-produced pre-engineered building units that are delivered to site and assembled as large volumetric components or as substantial elements of a building. The modular units may form complete rooms, parts of rooms, or separate highly serviced units such as toilets or lifts. The collection of discrete modular units usually forms a self-supporting structure in its own right or, for tall buildings, may rely on an independent structural framework.

“模块化建筑”是一个术语,用于描述使用工厂生产的预制建筑单元,这些单元被交付到现场,并作为大体积组件或建筑的实质性元素进行组装。模块化单元可以组成完整的房间,房间的一部分,或独立的高服务单元,如厕所或电梯。离散的模块单元的集合通常形成一个独立的支撑结构,或者,对于高层建筑,可以依赖一个独立的结构框架。


Modular hospital building during installation of open sided modules
(Image courtesy of Yorkon)


The main sectors of application of modular construction are:

模块化构建应用的主要领域有:


  • Private housing私人房屋

  • Social housing公共房屋

  • Apartments and mixed use buildings公寓和混合用途建筑

  • Educational sector and student residences教育部门和学生宿舍

  • Key worker accommodation and sheltered housing主要工作人员住宿和庇护住房

  • Public sector buildings, such as prisons and MoD buildings公共部门建筑,如监狱和国防部大楼

  • Health sector buildings卫生部门的建筑

  • Hotels酒店


Thousands of modules are manufactured annually in the UK. The largest markets for modular construction are in student residences, military accommodation and hotels, but the health sector is significant as it requires highly complex services and medical installations that can be commissioned and tested off-site.

英国每年生产数千个模块。模块化建筑的最大市场是在学生宿舍、军事宿舍和酒店,但卫生部门的重要性很大,因为它需要高度复杂的服务和医疗设施,可以在场外委托和测试。


Contents

目录


  • 1 Attributes of modular construction模块建筑的特性

  • 2 Types of modules模块分类

    • 2.1 4-sided modules4边模块

    • 2.2 Partially open-sided modules半开放模块

    • 2.3 Open sided (corner-supported) modules角柱支撑模块

    • 2.4 Mixed modules and floor cassettes混合模块

    • 2.5 Modules supported by a primary structure带主结构的模块

    • 2.6 Other types of modules其它

    • 2.6.1 Stair module楼梯模块

    • 2.6.2 Non load bearing modules非承重模块

    • 2.6.3 Balconies and atria阳台和门廊

  • 3 Key technical issues关键技术问题

    • 3.1 Dimensional planning平面布局

    • 3.2 Stability and structural integrity稳定性和结构完整性

    • 3.3 Service interfaces水电接驳

    • 3.4 Acoustic performance隔声性能

    • 3.5 Fire safety防火性能

  • 4 Sustainability可持续性

  • 5 Procurement采购

    • 5.1 Decision-making process决策程序

    • 5.2 Procurement process采购流程

  • 6 Typical details典型的节点详图

    • 6.1 Connections连接

    • 6.2 Facades and interfaces外立面和连接节点

    • 6.2.1 Foundation interfaces基础连接

    • 6.2.2 Wall cladding interfaces外围护包覆层连接

    • 6.2.3 Roofing interfaces屋面连接

  • 7 References参考文献

  • 8 Resources其它资源



Modular units used in multi storey social housing project in London
(Image courtesy of Yorkon)


1 Attributes of modular construction

模块建筑的特性


The use of modular and other lightweight forms of building construction is increasing. The benefits of modular construction, relative to more traditional methods, include:

模块化和其他轻型建筑形式的使用正在增加。与更传统的方法相比,模块化构造的好处包括:


  • Economy of scale through repetitive manufacture通过重复制造实现规模经济

  • Rapid installation on site (6-8 units per day)现场快速安装(每天6-8台)

  • High level of quality control in factory production高水平的工厂生产质量控制

  • Low selfweight leading to foundation savings低体重导致基金会储蓄

  • Suitable for projects with site constraints and where methods of working require more off-site manufacture适合有现场限制的项目和工作方法需要更多的场外生产

  • Limited disruption in the vicinity of the construction site建筑工地附近的干扰有限

  • Useful in building renovation projects, such as roof top extensions适用于建筑翻新工程,如屋顶扩建

  • Excellent acoustic insulation due to double layer construction双层结构,隔音性能好

  • Adaptable for future extensions, and ability to be dismantled easily and moved if required适用于未来的扩展,如果需要,可以方便地拆卸和移动

  • Robustness can be achieved by attaching the units together at their corners稳健性可以通过将单元连接在它们的角落来实现

  • Stability of tall buildings can be provided by a braced steel core.高层建筑的稳定性可由支撑的钢芯来提供。


Modular construction is most commonly associated with cellular type buildings such as student residences or key worker accommodation. For these applications it has the following features:

模块化建筑通常与单元式建筑相联系,如学生宿舍或主要工人宿舍。对于这些应用程序,它有以下特点:


  • Suitable for buildings with multiple repeated units适用于有多个重复单元的建筑物

  • Size of units is limited by transport (3.6m x 8m is typical)单元大小受运输限制(典型为3.6m x 8m)

  • Open sided units can be created (by changing the floor orientation)可以创建开放式单元(通过改变地板方向)

  • Modules are stacked with usually no independent structure模块通常没有独立的结构

  • Self weight of 1.5 to 2 kN/m2自重1.5 ~ 2kN/m2

  • 4 to 10 storeys (6 is usually the optimum)4到10层(6层通常是最佳)

  • Fire resistance of 30 to 60 minutes provided耐火时间为30至60分钟

  • Acoustic insulation is provided through double layer walls and floors.隔声通过双层墙壁和地板提供。


The following table describes the various structural elements used in walls and floors of modules.

下表描述了模块的墙壁和地板所使用的各种结构元素。




Construction of walls and floors in modular units
Walls Floors

Walls of modules comprise C sections of 75 to 150 mm depth.

模块的墙壁由75至150毫米的C部分组成。

Floors of modules comprise C sections of 150 to 250 mm depth.

模块的地板由150至250毫米的C部分组成。

Longitudinal walls are usually load-bearing and the end walls provide for stability.

纵向墙通常是承重的,而端墙提供稳定。

Ceiling is manufactured as a wall panel.

天花板是作为墙板制造的。

Open-sided modules can be created by longitudinal floor and ceiling joists – end walls become load bearing.

开放式模块可以由纵向地板和天花板搁栅创建-端壁成为承重。

Open-sided modules use deeper floor joists or lattice joists of 250 to 400 mm depth.

开放式模块采用深度为250至400毫米的较深的楼板搁栅或格子搁栅。

Stability provided by cross-flats or diaphragm action of boarding.

由横平片或横隔膜作用提供的稳定性。

Corridor zone can be used to provide in-plane bracing in long buildings.

走廊区可用于长建筑物的平面内支撑。

Double skin walls provide excellent acoustic insulation.

双层外墙提供极好的隔音效果。

Double skin floor and ceiling provides excellent acoustic insulation. Mineral wool may be required between the joists.

双层地板和天花板提供极好的隔音效果。托梁之间可能需要矿棉。


2 Types of modules

模块类型


The following types of modules may be used in the design of buildings using either fully modular construction or mixed forms of steel construction:

以下模块类型可用于设计使用完全模块化结构或混合形式的钢结构的建筑:


  • 4-sided modules四面模块

  • Partially open-sided modules半开放式的模块

  • Open-sided (corner-supported) modules开放式的(corner-supported)模块

  • Modules supported by a primary structural frame由主要结构框架支撑的模块

  • Non-load bearing modules非承载模块

  • Mixed modules and planar floor cassettes

  • Special stair or lift modules.特殊的楼梯或电梯模块。


The structure of the modules consists mainly of light steel C sections that are cold rolled from strip steel to BS EN 10346[1]. Additional corner posts in the form of square hollow sections are often used.

模块的结构主要由轻钢C型钢组成,这些型钢是冷轧后从带钢到BS EN 10346[1]的。通常采用方形空心截面的附加角柱。


2.1 Four-sided modules

四边承重模块


In this form of construction, modules are manufactured with four closed sides to create cellular type spaces designed to transfer the combined vertical load of the modules above and in-plane loads (due to wind action) through their longitudinal walls. The cellular space provided is limited by the transportation and installation requirements. Depending on location and exposure to wind action, the height of buildings in fully modular construction is in the range of 6 to 10 storeys.

在这种建筑形式中,模块有四个封闭的侧面,以创建单元式空间,用于将上面模块的组合垂直荷载和(由于风的作用)通过纵向墙壁传递到平面上的荷载。所提供的蜂窝空间受到运输和安装要求的限制。根据位置和风的作用,完全模块化建筑的建筑高度在6到10层之间。


Modules are manufactured from a series of 2D panels, beginning with the floor cassette, to which the four wall panels and ceiling panel are attached generally by screws. The walls transfer vertical loads and therefore the longitudinal walls of the upper module are designed to sit on the walls of the module below.

模块是由一系列的2D面板制造的,从地板盒开始,四块墙板和天花板面板通常是用螺丝连接到它。墙壁传递垂直荷载,因此上部模块的纵向墙壁被设计成位于下部模块的墙壁上。


Additional steel angles may be introduced in the recessed corners of the modules for lifting and for improved stability. Module to-module connections are usually in the form of plates that are bolted on site. Special lifting frames are used that allow the modules to be unhooked safely at height.

可在模块的凹角处引入额外的钢角,用于提升和提高稳定性。模块到模块的连接通常采用现场螺栓连接的板的形式。使用了特殊的起重架,使模块可以在高度安全地卸下。



Details of 4 sided modules showing recessed corners with additional angle sections

4个侧面模块的细节显示凹角和额外的角度部分


Module being lifted in the factory


Modules can be manufactured with integral balconies and a range of cladding materials can be pre attached or installed on site. All walls are insulated, and are usually boarded externally for weather protection. Additional external insulation can be attached on site.

模块可以与完整的阳台和一系列包层材料可以预先附加或现场安装。所有的墙壁都是隔热的,通常在外面用木板封住以防止天气的影响。可以在现场附加额外的外部绝缘。


For low rise buildings, in plane bracing or diaphragm action of the board materials within the modules provides shear resistance, assisted by the module to module connections, which transfer the applied wind forces to the group of modules.

对于低层建筑,在平面支撑或隔板的作用下,板料内部模块提供抗剪能力,辅助模块到模块的连接,将所施加的风力传递到模块组。


For buildings of 6 to 10 storeys height, a vertical bracing system is often located around an access core, and assisted by horizontal bracing in the corridor floor between the modules. For taller buildings, a steel podium frame may be provided on which the modules are stacked and supplemented by a concrete or steel core.

对于6 – 10层楼高的建筑,垂直支撑系统通常设置在入口核心周围,并在模块之间的走廊层借助水平支撑。对于较高的建筑,可以提供一个钢裙楼框架,在上面堆叠模块,并用混凝土或钢芯加以补充。


The maximum height of a group of modules is dependent on the stability provided under wind action. Various cases are presented in the table for scheme design (based on wind loading in the Midlands of England).

一组模块的最大高度取决于在风作用下提供的稳定性。在方案设计的表格中列出了各种情况(基于英格兰中部的风荷载)。





Typical building height depending on the stabilising system using 4 sided modules general guidance for scheme design

Form of modular construction

模块结构形式

Bracing requirements

支撑设计要求


Limit on size in concept design
Typical max. number of storeys Min. number of modules in a group

Single line of modules 

单行模组


No additional bracing

没有额外的支撑

3 5

With additional bracing in gables

在山墙中增加支撑

5 8

With additional stabilising core

附加稳定核心

7 No limit

Double line of modules with central corridor 

双排模块与中央走廊


No additional bracing

没有额外的支撑

6 2 x 8

With additional bracing in gables

在山墙中增加支撑

8 2 x 10

With additional stabilising core

附加稳定核心

10 – 12 No limit


2.2 Partially open-sided modules

半开放式的模块


Layout of apartments using partially open sided modules – alternate modules are shaded(Image courtesy of PCKO Architects)

公寓的布局使用部分开放的侧面模块-交替模块是阴影

4 sided modules can be designed with partially open sides by the introduction of corner and intermediate posts and by using a stiff continuous edge beam in the floor cassette. The maximum width of opening is limited by the bending resistance and stiffness of the edge member in the floor cassette. Additional intermediate posts are usually square hollow sections (SHS), so that they can fit within the wall width.

通过引入角和中间柱,并在地板盒中使用刚性连续边梁,可以设计4边模块与部分开放的边。开口的最大宽度受地板盒中边缘构件的抗弯力和刚度的限制。额外的中间柱通常是方形空心段(SHS),这样它们可以适应墙宽。


Two modules can be placed together to create wider spaces. The compression resistance of the corner or internal posts controls the maximum height of the building, but 6 to 10 storeys can be achieved, as for fully modular construction.

两个模块可以放在一起来创造更广阔的空间。抗压性的角落或内部的柱子控制了建筑的最大高度,但6到10层可以达到,作为完全模块化的建设。


Long modules can also be designed to include an integral corridor, as shown below. The length of the module may be limited by transport and site access but a length of up to 12m is normally practical. Use of modules with integral corridors can improve the speed of construction by avoiding weather tightness problems during installation and finishing work.

长模块也可以设计包括一个完整的走廊,如下图所示。该模块的长度可能会受到运输和现场访问的限制,但一般情况下,12米的长度是可行的。使用带有整体走廊的模块,可以避免安装和完成工作期间的天气严密性问题,从而提高施工速度。


Partially open ended module used in Barling Court, London(Image courtesy of PCKO Architects)

部分开放的结束模块用于Barling法院,伦敦


Long module with an integral corridor(Image courtesy of Kingspan Off Site and Modular UK)

带有完整走廊的长模块


The form of construction is similar to that of 4 sided modules, except for the use of additional posts, generally in the form of 70 x 70 to 100 x 100 SHS members. Balconies or other components can be attached to the corner or internal posts. Overall stability is provided by additional bracing located in the walls of the modules.

结构形式类似于4边模块,除了使用额外的柱子,一般形式为70 x 70到100 x 100 SHS成员。阳台或其他组件可以附加在角落或内部的柱子上。整体的稳定性是由位于模块壁上的附加支撑提供的。


Stability of the modules is affected by their partially open sides; additional temporary bracing during lifting and installation may be necessary. A separate bracing system may also be required, as the partially open-sided modules may not possess sufficient shear resistance in certain applications. A typical building form in which larger apartments are created using partially open sided units is shown right.

模块的稳定性受其半开侧的影响;在吊装和安装期间可能需要额外的临时支撑。由于在某些应用中,部分开口的模块可能没有足够的抗剪能力,因此也可能需要单独的支撑系统。右图是一个典型的建筑形式,其中较大的公寓使用部分开放的单元。


2.3 Open sided (corner-supported) modules

开放的(支持角的)模块



Primary steel frame used in a fully open sided module(Image courtesy of Kingspan Off-Site and Modular UK)

通用钢框架用于一个完全开放的侧面模块


Modules may be designed to provide fully open sides by transfer of loads through the longitudinal edge beams to the corner posts. The framework of the module is often in the form of hot rolled steel members, such as Square Hollow Section (SHS) columns and Parallel Flange Channel (PFC) edge beams, that are bolted together.

模块可以设计为通过纵向边缘梁将荷载传递到角柱,从而提供完全开放的侧板。该模块的框架通常采用热轧钢构件的形式,如用螺栓固定在一起的方形空心截面(SHS)柱和平行法兰槽(PFC)边梁。


A shallower parallel flange channel (PFC) section may be used to support the ceiling, but in all cases, the combined depth of the edge beams is greater than for 4 sided modules. Modules can be placed side by side to create larger open plan spaces, as required in hospitals and schools, etc.

可以使用较浅的平行法兰通道(PFC)部分来支撑天花板,但在所有情况下,边缘梁的组合深度都大于4边模块。模块可以并排放置,以创建更大的开放平面空间,如医院和学校等需要。


The stability of the building generally relies on a separate bracing system in the form of X bracing in the separating walls. For this reason, fully open ended modules are not often used for buildings more than three storeys high. Where used, infill walls and partitions within the modules are non load bearing, except where walls connected to the columns provide in plane bracing. The corner posts provide the compression resistance and are typically 100 x 100 SHS members. The edge beams may be connected to these posts by fin plates, which provide nominal bending resistance. End plates and Hollo-bolts to the SHS members may also be used. The corner posts possess sufficient compression resistance for use in buildings at least up to 10 storeys.

建筑物的稳定性通常依赖于在隔墙中以X支撑形式存在的独立支撑系统。由于这个原因,完全开放的结束模块不经常用于建筑物超过三层高。在使用时,模块内的填充墙和隔板是不承重的,除非与柱连接的墙采用平面支撑。角柱提供抗压缩和典型的100 x 100 SHS成员。边缘梁可以通过鳍板连接到这些柱子上,提供公称的抗弯能力。也可以使用SHS构件的端板和空心螺栓。角柱具有足够的抗压能力,可用于10层以上的建筑物。


As open sided modules are only stable on their own for one or two storeys, additional vertical and horizontal bracing is usually introduced. In plane forces can be transferred by suitable connections at the corners of the modules.

由于开边构件本身只能在一层或两层内保持稳定,因此通常会引入附加的竖向和水平支撑。在平面上,力可以通过模块角上的适当连接传递。


An open ended module is a variant of a 4 sided module in which a rigid end frame is provided, usually consisting of welded or rigidly connected Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS). The rigid end frames are manufactured as part of the module or can be assembled as separate components.

开口模组是四边模组的一种变体,其中端部有刚性框架,通常由焊接或刚性连接的矩形空心截面(RHS)组成。刚性端框架作为模块的一部分制造或可以作为单独的组件组装。



Structural frame of a corner supported module – end view

角支撑模块的结构框架-端面图


Longitudinal edge beams of a corner supported module

角支撑模块的纵向边缘梁


A steel external framework comprising walkways or balconies may be also designed to provide stability. Modules using hot rolled steel framework can be designed to support concrete floors for use in medical and other applications, where strict control of vibrations is required.

钢制的外部框架,包括走道或阳台,也可设计以提供稳定性。使用热轧钢板框架的模块可以设计用于支持混凝土地板,用于医疗和其他需要严格控制振动的应用。


2.4 Mixed modules and floor cassettes

混合模块和楼层结构单元


In this ‘hybrid’ or mixed form of construction, long modules may be stacked to form a load-bearing serviced core and floor cassettes span between the modules and load-bearing walls. The modules are constructed in a similar way to that described for open-sided modules, but the loading applied to the side of the modules is significantly higher. Therefore, this mixed modular and panel form of construction is limited to buildings of 4 to 6 storey height. It is typically used in residential buildings, particularly of terraced form, comprising modular ‘cores’ for stairs, and highly serviced areas. The modules are arranged in a ‘spine’ through the building and the floors are attached to it. An example of this hybrid form of construction is shown.

在这种混合或混合形式的建筑中,长模块可以堆叠成一个承重服务核心和地板盒跨越模块和承重墙。模块的构造方式与所述的开放式模块相似,但是模块侧面的负载要高得多。因此,这种混合的模块化和面板形式的建筑仅限于4到6层高的建筑。它通常用于住宅建筑,特别是梯田形式,包括楼梯模块核心和高服务区域。模块被安排在贯穿建筑的脊柱中,楼层与之相连。给出了这种混合结构形式的一个例子。


‘Hybrid’ modular and panel building showing planar floors and walls attached to the modules

“混合”模块和板式建筑,展示平面地板和连接到模块的墙壁


Load-bearing bathroom modules were used to support the floor cassettes at Lillie Road, Fulham(Image courtesy of Feilden Clegg Bradley)

承重浴室模块用于支撑富勒姆莉莉路的地板模块


2.5 Modules supported by a primary structure

由主要结构支持的模块


Modules supported by long spanning cellular beams to create open plan space at the lower levels

模块由长跨度蜂窝梁支持,在较低的楼层创建开放的平面空间


Modular units may be designed to be supported by a primary structure at a podium or platform level. In this case, the supporting columns are positioned at a multiple of the width of the modules (normally 2 or 3 modules). The beams are designed to support the combined loads from the modules above (normally a maximum of 4 6 storeys).

模块化单元可以被设计成由一个平台或平台层的主要结构支撑。在这种情况下,支撑柱被放置在模块宽度的倍数处(通常是2或3个模块)。梁被设计来支持以上模块的联合荷载(通常最多4层6层)。


The supporting structure is designed conventionally as a steel framework with beams and columns that align with multiples of the module width, and provides open plan space at ground floor and below ground levels. This form of construction is very suitable for mixed retail, commercial and residential developments, especially for residential units above commercial areas or car parking, etc, particularly in urban projects.

传统的支撑结构设计为钢框架,梁和柱与模块宽度的倍数对齐,并在一层和底层提供开放平面空间。这种建筑形式非常适合零售、商业和住宅的混合发展,尤其适合位于商业区或停车场等上方的住宅单元,尤其是在城市项目中。


Modules can be set back from the façade line. An example of a mixed development in Manchester is shown. The ground floor and below- ground car parking is a conventional composite structure.

模块可以从外观线向后设置。展示了曼彻斯特混合开发的一个例子。底层和地下停车场是传统的复合结构。


Typical podium structure in which seven storeys of residential units are supported on a composite structure frame below

典型的裙楼结构,七层的住宅单元由下面的复合结构框架支撑(Image courtesy of The Design Buro, Rollalong and Ayrshire Framing)


Where the 4 sided modules are designed to be supported by steel or composite beams and the typical line load per supported floor is 15kN/m, columns are placed at 6 to 8m spacing. A column spacing of 7.2m is suitable for below ground car parking. The depth of the podium type structure is 800 to 1000mm, and spans of 10 to 18m can be created below the podium, which are suitable for commercial applications and car parking.

4侧模块设计为钢梁或组合梁支撑,每个支撑层典型线荷载为15kN/m,柱间距为6 ~ 8m。柱间距7.2m,适用于地下停车场。裙楼式结构的深度为800 – 1000mm,裙楼下方可创造10 – 18m的跨度,适合商业应用和停车场。


The podium structure is generally braced to resist wind loads and a separate braced core is often used to stabilise the group of modules above the podium level. The module design is similar to that described for 4 sided modules. Wind loads can be transferred horizontally through the corridor floors.

平台结构一般采用支撑来抵抗风荷载,通常采用单独的支撑核心来稳定平台上的模块组。模块设计类似于描述的四面模块。风荷载可以通过走廊楼层水平传递。


Alternatively, non load bearing modules can be supported by a primary frame, and are installed as the construction proceeds. Modules can be disassembled in the future to leave the floor cassette supported by the beams. An example of the mixed use of modules and primary steel frame is shown below left. The modules are shown shaded and floor spans indicated.

或者,非承重模块可以由主框架支撑,并在施工过程中安装。模块可以在将来被拆解,离开由梁支撑的地板盒。一个混合使用模块和主钢架的例子如下所示。模块用阴影表示,地板跨度表示。


An external steel structure, consisting of a façade structure that acts to stabilise the building, may also be used. Modules are placed internally within the braced steel frame, as shown in the MoHo project in Manchester (below right).

也可以使用外部钢结构,它由外立面结构组成,起到稳定建筑的作用。模块被放置在支撑的钢框架内部,如曼彻斯特的莫霍项目所示(右下)。


Mixed use of modules and long spanning floor with a primary steel frame

混合使用的模块和长跨度地板与初级钢框架


Installation of modules behind external steel framework at MoHo, Manchester(Image courtesy of Yorkon and Joule Consulting Engineers)

安装模块后的外部钢框架在莫霍,曼彻斯特


2.6 Other types of modules

其它模块类型

Various forms of other modular components have been used in major building projects.

各种形式的其他模块化组件已经在主要的建筑项目中使用。


2.6.1 Stair module

楼梯模块

Modular stairs may be designed as fully modular units and generally comprise landings and half landings with two flights of stairs. The landings and half landings are supported by longitudinal walls with additional angles or SHS members to provide local strengthening, if necessary. The stair modules rely for their stability on a base and top, which leads to use of a false landing. The open top and base of the wall may be strengthened by a T, L or similar members to transfer out of plane loads to the landing. SHS posts and bracing can be introduced in the walls to provide for overall stability.

模组式楼梯可设计为完全模组式单元,一般包括楼梯平台和两层楼梯的半楼梯平台。起落架和半起落架由带有附加角或SHS构件的纵向墙支撑,以便在必要时提供局部加固。楼梯模块依靠其在底部和顶部的稳定性,这导致使用假着陆。墙体的开口顶部和底部可以用T型、L型或类似的构件进行加固,以将飞机载荷转移到着陆点。可在墙体中引入SHS柱和支撑,以保证整体稳定性。



Detail of light steel modular stair system showing use of a ‘false’ landing to modules

轻钢模块楼梯系统的细节显示使用了一个“假”着陆模块


2.6.2 Non load bearing modules

非承重模块

Non load bearing modules are of similar form to fully modular units, but are not designed to resist external loads, other than their own weight and the forces during lifting. They are used as toilet/bathroom units, plant rooms or other serviced units and are supported directly on a floor or by a separate structure. The walls and floor of these ‘pods’ are relatively thin (typically <100mm). The units are designed to be installed either as the construction proceeds or slid into place on the completed floor.

非承重模块的形式类似于完全模块化的单元,但不设计抵抗外部负载,除了他们自己的重量和在提升期间的力。它们被用作厕所/浴室单元、植物室或其他服务单元,直接支撑在地板上或由单独的结构支撑。这些“豆荚”的墙壁和地板相对较薄(通常小于100mm)。这些单元被设计成可以在施工过程中安装,也可以在完成的地板上安装。


Compatibility of the floor depth in the module and in the floor elsewhere is achieved by one of four methods:

模块中的地板深度与其他地方的地板深度的兼容性可通过以下四种方法之一实现:


  • Designing the depth of the floor of the module to be the same as the raised floor or acoustic layer elsewhere.模块地板的设计深度应与其他地方的地板或声学层相同。

  • Placing the module in a recess in the floor of the main structure.将模块放置在主结构地板的凹槽中。

  • Designing the module without a floor (possible in small modules in which fitments are attached to the walls).设计没有地板的模块(可能是小模块,在小模块中,设备被附在墙壁上)。

  • Designing the modules to be supported on the bottom flange of Slimflor beams.设计支撑在薄型梁底部法兰上的模块。


2.6.3 Balconies and atria

阳台和门廊模块


Atrium created between modulesm(Image courtesy of Yorkon)

中庭在模块之间创建

Balconies may be attached to modules in various ways:

阳台可以以各种方式附加到模块上:

  • Balconies supported by a self standing steel structure that is ground supported阳台由地面支撑的自立钢结构支撑

  • Balconies attached between adjacent modules相邻模块之间的阳台

  • Balconies that are attached to corner posts in the modules附加在模块角柱上的阳台

  • Integrated balconies within an open sided module.开放式模块内的综合阳台。


Atria may be created by attaching a lightweight steel roof to the upper modules or by by spanning the roof between the modules as shown.

中庭可以通过在上层模块上附加一个轻型钢屋顶来创建,也可以通过在模块之间跨越屋顶来创建,如图所示。


Balcony attachments to external structure (MoHo, Manchester)(Image courtesy of Shed KM Architects and Yorkon)

外部结构的阳台附件(莫霍,曼彻斯特)


3 Key technical issues

主要技术问题


The following general design issues are reviewed below:

以下是一般设计问题的检讨:


  • Dimensional planning空间规划

  • Stability and structural integrity稳定性和结构完整性

  • Service interfaces服务接口

  • Acoustic performance隔声

  • Fire safety.防火


3.1 Dimensional planning

空间规划

The factors that influence the dimensional planning of modular systems in general building design may be summarised as:

在一般建筑设计中,影响模块化系统尺寸规划的因素可以总结为:


  • Cladding requirements, including alignment with external dimensions of cladding包层要求,包括与包层的外部尺寸对齐

  • Planning grid for internal fit out, such as kitchens为内部装修规划网格,如厨房

  • Transportation requirements, including access to the site运输要求,包括进入现场的通道

  • Building form, as influenced by its functionality受功能影响的建筑形式

  • Repeatability in modular manufacture.模块制造的可重复性。


3.1.1 Cladding

外装饰面体系

Brickwork design is based on a standard unit of 225mm width and 75mm depth. Therefore, it may be important to design a floor depth to a multiple of 75mm in order to avoid non standard coursing of bricks.

砌砖设计以225毫米宽、75毫米深的标准单元为基础。因此,为了避免砖块的非标准平整,将地板的深度设计为75毫米的倍数是很重要的。


Other types of cladding, such as clay tiles or metallic finishes, have their own dimensional requirements, but generally they can be designed and manufactured to fit with window dimensions etc. Many types of lightweight cladding can be pre attached to the modules, but it is generally necessary to install a cover piece over the joints between the modules on site, to cater for geometrical tolerances and misalignments.

其他类型的包层,如粘土瓦或金属饰面,有自己的尺寸要求,但通常可以根据窗户尺寸等进行设计和制造。许多类型的轻型包层可以预先附加到模块上,但通常需要在现场模块之间的连接处安装一个盖板,以满足几何公差和失调。


3.1.2 Standardisation of planning grid

规划网格的标准化

Standardisation of the planning grid is important at the scheme design stage, as the planning grid will be controlled by other building components and fitments. A dimensional unit of 300mm may be adopted as standard for vertical and horizontal dimensions, reducing to 150mm as a second level for vertical dimensions. External walls are detailed according to the type of cladding, but a 300mm total wall width may be adopted as a guide for most cladding materials. The actual width will vary between 200mm for insulated render and board materials to 320mm for brickwork.

规划网格的标准化在方案设计阶段很重要,因为规划网格将由其他建筑部件和设备控制。垂直和水平尺寸的标准尺寸单位可采用300mm,垂直尺寸的第二级尺寸可减为150mm。外墙根据包层类型进行详细说明,但大多数包层材料可以采用300mm的总墙宽作为指南。实际宽度将在200mm(用于绝缘粉刷和板材料)和320mm(用于砌砖)之间变化。


Typical dimensions for planning in modular construction are presented in the table.

表中列出了模块化建筑中规划的典型尺寸。


Application

Internal wall height (mm) Internal module width (mm) Internal module length (m) Ceiling-floor zone (typical) (mm)
Study bedrooms 2400 2500 – 2700 5.4 to 6 300
Apartments 2400 3300 – 3600 6 to 9 450
Hotels 2400 – 2700 3300 – 3600 5.4 to 7.5 450
Schools 2700 – 3000 3000 – 3600 open-sided 9 to 12 600
Offices 2700 – 3000 3000 – 3600 6 to 12 600 – 750
Health sector 2700 – 3000 3000 – 3600 open-sided 9 to 12 600 – 750


Typical wall and floor/ceiling dimensions

典型的墙壁和地板/天花板尺寸


3.1.3 Transportation

运输


Guidance on transportation on major roads is given by the Road Haulage Association, based on the Road Vehicles (Construction and Use) Regulations[2].

根据《道路车辆(建造和使用)条例》[2],道路运输协会给出了主要道路运输指南。


The following basic requirements for transportation should be considered when designing the sizes of modular units:

在设计模块化单元的尺寸时,应考虑以下运输的基本要求:


  • Modules exceeding 2.9m external width require 2 days notice to the police超过2.9米外宽的模块需提前2天通知警方

  • Modules exceeding 3.5m width require a driver’s mate and 2 days police notice超过3.5米宽的模块需要驾驶员的伴侣和2天的警方通知

  • Modules exceeding 4.3m width require additional speed restrictions and may require police escort.超过4.3米宽度的模块需要额外的速度限制,并可能需要警察护送。


Stricter limits may be required for local roads, particularly in urban areas. In all cases, the maximum height of the load is 4.95m for motorway bridges. Standard container vehicles can deliver one large or two smaller units.

可能需要对当地道路,特别是在城市地区实行更严格的限制。在所有情况下,高速公路桥的最大荷载高度为4.95m。标准集装箱车辆可以运送一个大的或两个小的单位。


3.1.4 Internal walls

内墙


Internal walls comprising the walls of adjacent modules may be designed for a standard 300mm face face overall width, incorporating the sheathing boards, internal plasterboards and insulation between the C sections. The gap between the walls is a variable, depending on the number and thickness of boards and size of the wall studs.

由相邻模块的墙壁组成的内墙可设计为标准的300mm面整体宽度,包括护套板、内部石膏板和C部分之间的绝缘。墙之间的间隙是可变的,取决于板的数量和厚度以及墙钉的大小。


3.1.5 Floor zone

楼板

Floors and ceilings in modular construction are deeper than in more traditional construction. The three structural cases of side supported (4-sided modules), corner supported (open sided) and frame supported modules require different overall ceiling floor dimensions for planning purposes, as follows:

模块化建筑的地板和天花板比传统建筑更深。侧支(四边模组)、角支(开式模组)和框架模组三种结构情况,在规划上需要不同的整体天花地板尺寸,具体如下:


  • Continuously supported or 4-sided modules: 300 or 450mm连续支撑或4侧模块:300或450mm

  • Corner supported or open-sided modules: 450 to 600mm角支撑或开口模块:450至600mm

  • Frame supported modules: 750 to 900mm.框架支撑模块:750 – 900mm。


In most cases, 450mm may be adopted as a standard for the floor-to-ceiling dimension, although many systems provide shallower depths. For corner supported modules, a standard overall floor and ceiling depth of 600mm may be used. The gap between the floor and ceiling is a variable depending on the number of boards and the joist size.

在大多数情况下,450毫米可以作为地板到天花板尺寸的标准,尽管许多系统提供较浅的深度。对于角支撑模块,可采用标准的整体地板和天花板深度600mm。地板和天花板之间的间隙是可变的,取决于板的数量和托梁的大小。


Detail of corner supported module


3.2 Stability and structural integrity

稳定性和结构完整性


Tying forces in modular construction subject to loss of one module by fire or explosion 

由于火灾或爆炸而失去一个模块的捆绑力


Overall stability is provided by the modules themselves, or by an external structure. The load path is through the walls of the 3-D units, and so removal of this load path means that the walls should be designed to either:

整体稳定性是由模块本身或外部结构提供的。荷载路径是穿过三维单元墙体的,因此,拆除荷载路径意味着墙体应设计为:


  • Span horizontally over a damaged area by acting as a deep beam ,or作为一个深梁,或在受损区域横向跨越

  • Be supported by tie forces to the adjacent units.由与相邻单位的连接力量支撑。


The latter means that the units should be tied both horizontally and vertically. Robustness is provided by the ties between the modules with a normally assumed minimum tying force equivalent to half the loaded weight of the module (minimum value of 30kN).

后者意味着单元应该在水平和垂直两方面捆绑。模块之间的连接具有鲁棒性,通常假定的最小系结力等于模块负载重量的一半(最小值为30kN)。


3.3 Service interfaces

服务接口


The installation of electrical, plumbing and heating services in modular buildings can be largely carried out in the factory with final connections made on-site. In traditional construction, such activities are labour intensive on-site and are often on the critical path, so that any difficulties can cause delays. Service strategies that have been used in modular buildings include:

模块式建筑中的电气、管道和供暖设备的安装大部分可以在工厂进行,最后的连接可以在现场进行。在传统的建筑中,这些活动都是现场劳动密集型的,而且往往是在关键的道路上,因此任何困难都可能导致延误。在模块化建筑中使用的服务策略包括:


  • Use of communal spaces for distribution of services使用公共空间来分配服务

  • Use of the floor or ceiling zone within each module for service distribution使用每个模块内的地板或天花板区域进行服务分配

  • Installation of services within each module in the factory with site work involving only connection of modules工厂内每个模块的安装服务,现场工作只涉及模块的连接

  • Drainage connections of modules connected to vertical risers in the corner of the modules模块的排水连接连接到模块角落的垂直立管

  • Wet areas are connected back to back to concentrate service zones.潮湿区域与集中服务区域背靠背相连。


A vertical service duct is usually incorporated in the corner of each unit to accommodate the vertical drainage and pipework. The services in each module are installed in the factory and terminate in the vertical duct. Access to the service duct is generally only possible from circulation areas outside the modular unit.

通常在每个单元的角落安装一个垂直的服务管道,以适应垂直的排水和管道工作。每个模块中的服务都安装在工厂内,并终止在垂直管道上。通常只能从模块单元外面的流通区域进入维修管道。


The horizontal distribution of services between modules varies, depending on the building type. For most types of residential buildings and hotels, the corridor ceiling and floor voids act as service zones.

服务在模块之间的水平分布不同,这取决于建筑类型。对于大多数类型的住宅建筑和酒店,走廊的天花板和地板空隙作为服务区。


Vertical drainage stacks are also installed in the factory and a removable floor panel is provided to allow the final connection to the drains installed in the ground on-site. This requires a high degree of accuracy in setting out service inlets on-site.

工厂还安装了垂直的排水烟囱,并提供了可移动的地板,以便最终连接安装在地面上的排水管道。这要求在现场布置服务入口时具有高度的准确性。


Typical service duct in a modular hotel building

典型的模块式酒店的管道


3.4 Acoustic performance

隔声性能


Modular construction provides a high level of acoustic separation because each module has separate floor, ceiling and wall elements, which prevents direct transfer of sound along the members.

模块化结构提供了高水平的声分离,因为每个模块都有单独的地板、天花板和墙壁元素,这防止了声音沿着成员直接传递。


Modular unit manufacturers use various methods to further improve sound reduction between units – two overlapping layers of plasterboard fixed inside each module, oriented strand board (OSB) or plasterboard fixed as external sheeting or quilt insulation between steel members.

模块化单元制造商采用各种方法来进一步改善单元之间的隔音效果——在每个模块内部固定两层重叠的石膏板,定向刨花板(OSB)或在钢构件之间固定作为外护板或被子保温的石膏板。


Special care needs to be taken around openings for service pipes or other penetrations, because sound attenuation is particularly affected by air pathways between spaces. Electrical sockets penetrate the plasterboard layer, so they should be carefully insulated using quilt at their rear.

由于空间之间的空气通道会特别影响到声音的衰减,因此需要特别注意服务管道的开口或其他穿透处。电插座穿过石膏板层,所以要小心地在后面用棉被保温。


3.5 Fire safety

防火性能


Compartment floor at junction with external wall and compartment wall

隔层地板与外墙和隔层墙的连接处


Fire safety is related to provision of adequate means of escape, to ensuring structural integrity, and controlling spread of fire across compartment boundaries. In England, minimum periods of fire resistance are given in Approved Document B[3].

消防安全是指提供足够的逃生手段,确保结构的完整性,控制火灾跨越隔间边界的蔓延。在英国,经批准的文件B[3]中规定了最低防火期限。


Modular construction generally achieves these requirements by the use of fire resistant plasterboard conforming to BS EN 520[4], Type F. Alternative materials, such as cement particle board and gypsum fibre board may also be used in combination with plasterboard as the facing layer.

模块结构通常通过使用符合bsen520 [4] f型耐火石膏板来实现这些要求。水泥刨花板和石膏纤维板等替代材料也可以与石膏板组合使用作为面层。


Each module is lined internally with one or two layers of fire resistant plasterboard as follows:

每个模块内部内衬一层或两层耐火石膏板,具体如下:


  • For walls: 30 minutes fire resistance is achieved by a single layer of 12.5mm fire resistant plasterboard on each face of a steel stud wall墙体:通过在钢柱墙的每一面涂上一层12.5mm的防火石膏板,可达到30分钟的防火效果

  • For walls: 60 minutes fire resistance is achieved by one layer of 12.5mm fire resistant plasterboard on a layer of 12.5 mm wallboard with staggered joints on each face of a steel stud wall墙体:钢柱墙各面错缝,在12.5mm墙板上加一层12.5mm耐火石膏板,可达到60分钟耐火

  • For floors: 30 minutes fire resistance is achieved with 18mm tongue and groove boarding on light steel joists and 12.5mm fire resistant plasterboard beneath with joints taped and filled对于地板:通过在轻钢搁栅上安装18mm的舌槽板和在下面安装12.5mm的防火石膏板来达到30分钟的防火效果,并在接缝处粘贴和填充

  • For floors: 60 minutes fire resistance is achieved with at least 18mm T&G board floor finish and one layer of 12.5mm fire resistant plasterboard on a layer of 12.5mm wallboard with staggered joints beneath the steel joists.地板:至少使用18mm T&G板地板,在钢搁栅下的一层12.5mm墙板上加一层12.5mm防火石膏板,达到60分钟的防火效果。


In residential construction, each dwelling usually forms a separate fire compartment. All walls and floors that provide a separating function between compartments require 60 minutes fire resistance. In hotels and other residential buildings, each bedroom may form its own compartment.

在住宅建筑中,每个住宅通常都有一个单独的防火隔间。所有的墙壁和地板提供分隔功能,需要60分钟的防火时间。在酒店和其他住宅建筑中,每个卧室都可以形成自己的隔间。


In general, a compartment floor will also act as a separating floor for acoustic purposes, as the same measures will also achieve excellent acoustic insulation between rooms.

一般来说,隔层地板也可以作为隔声地板,同样的措施也可以在房间之间实现良好的隔音效果。


The inherent separation between modules provides an effective barrier to spread of fire. Means of escape should be considered early in the scheme design in order to ensure that the module design and layout can satisfy these requirements. Cavity barriers are required within the cavity in the external wall between the module and the cladding at intersections with compartment walls. They are also required horizontally at junctions with floors and roof, and vertically at a maximum lateral spacing of 20m (or 10m where the material exposed to the cavity is not Class 0 or 1 as defined by Approved Document B[3]). Fire stops must be provided around any penetrations through fire resisting walls.

模块之间固有的隔离为火势的蔓延提供了有效的屏障。为了保证模块的设计和布局能够满足这些要求,在方案设计时应尽早考虑逃生方式。在模块和包层之间的外墙上的腔内与隔间墙的交叉处需要腔屏障。在与地板和屋顶连接的水平位置,以及在垂直方向上,最大横向间距为20m(或在暴露于空腔的材料不属于经批准的B[3]文件定义的0级或1级的地方,间距为10m),也需要安装。必须在穿过防火墙的任何地方设置防火挡。


4 Sustainability

可持续性


The concept of using sustainability indicators is becoming accepted as part of the environmental assessment of building construction. For modular construction, it is appropriate to include whole life measures, such as potential re-use, or re-location which are not properly reflected in conventional measures of sustainability.

使用可持续性指标的概念正逐渐被接受为建筑施工环境评估的一部分。对于模块化建筑,它是适当的包括整个生命周期的措施,如潜在的再利用,或重新安置,这些没有适当反映在传统的可持续措施。


The sustainability indicators relevant to modular construction are listed below. Comments on how modular construction contributes to these indicators are given against each indicator.

与模块化建设相关的可持续发展指标如下。针对每个指标给出了关于模块构造如何对这些指标作出贡献的评论。

Energy efficiency

能源效率


Sustainability indicator

Comment on modular construction

Minimise energy in use

尽量减少使用能源

Good level of thermal insulation

良好的保温水平

Efficient heating and cooling systems

高效的加热和冷却系统

Control systems for energy saving provided

提供节能控制系统

Energy saving measures

节能措施

Efficient manufacture

Minimise CO2 production from fossil fuels

减少化石燃料产生的二氧化碳

高效运行和保温

Efficient operation and thermal insulation

Efficient use of materials

物料的有效使用

Minimise embodied carbon in materials

尽量减少材料中的含碳量

Factory controlled operation
100% recyclable

High strength to weight ratio

高强度重量比

Ease of deconstruction and re-use

易于解构和重复使用

Minimising transport

最小化运输


Sustainability indicator

Comment on modular construction

Suitable site location

合适的地点位置

Depends on public transport and adjacent public amenities (site specific)

Minimise transport impact

减少运输的影响

Raw materials delivered in bulk to factory
Modules delivered to site fitted out
Reduced deliveries to site
Fewer personnel on site

Minimising pollution

最小化污染


Sustainability indicator

Comment on modular construction

No use of ozone-depleting substances

不使用消耗臭氧层物质

Insulation materials selected to suit client needs

Minimise waste creation and disposal

尽量减少废物的产生和处置

Efficient use of materials in factory
Minimum / zero waste on site
Recycling of scrap metal
Re-use of modules or components

Maximise waste recycling ratio

尽量提高废物循环再造率

Recycled steel used in manufacture
Modules can be re-used

Minimise nuisance in construction

尽量减少施工过程中的滋扰

Noise, vibration and dust reduced
Fast construction process
Less waste disposal
Fewer site deliveries

Efficient materials and resource use

有效使用物料及资源


Sustainability indicator

Comment on modular construction

Efficient use of materials

物料的有效使用

Steel has high strength to weight ratio
Efficient design in materials use
Long design life

Ability to be recycled or re-used

可回收或再利用的能力

High proportion can be recycled
Modules can be re-used

Low maintenance

维修费用低


Few ‘call backs’ due to quality of production
Accessibility for maintenance is easier

Provision for future adaptability

未来适应性准备

Ability to extend / modify building

Health and well-being

健康和舒适


Sustainability indicator

Comment on modular construction
Maximise site safety Manufacturing process is safe
Safer site operations in modular construction
Considerate construction Speed of construction on site
Minimum noise, disruption etc.
Good acoustic insulation Good insulation between modules
Facades insulated against external noise
Adequate day lighting Large windows can be provided in modules

Worker welfare

职工福利

Safe and clean manufacture and construction
Good operational conditions


5 Procurement

5 采购管理


The typical procurement process for modular buildings requires that the client, designer and manufacturer work together at all phases of the project to maximise the benefits of the off-site process and manufacturing efficiency.

模块化建筑的典型采购流程要求客户、设计师和制造商在项目的各个阶段协同工作,以最大限度地提高非现场流程的效益和生产效率。


5.1Decision-making process

决策程序

The decision-making process for modular construction differs from more traditional methods of construction because of:

模块化施工的决策过程不同于更传统的施工方法,因为:


  • The close involvement of the client in assessing the business-related benefits provided by the method of construction.客户密切参与评估施工方法所提供的业务相关效益。

  • The direct involvement of the manufacturer in the design, costing and logistics.制造商直接参与设计、成本核算和物流。

  • The need to make key decisions early in the procurement process在采购过程的早期做出关键决策的必要性

  • The important environmental and site-related benefits that can be achieved可取得的重要环境及与地点有关的效益

  • The effect of transportation logistics on costs and module sizes.运输物流对成本和模块大小的影响。


Since the benefits of modular construction are realised through pre-fabrication, the initial design phase, including the space planning and subsequent detailed design, service integration, and co-ordination, are critical.

由于模块化建设的好处是通过预制实现的,初始设计阶段,包括空间规划和随后的详细设计,服务集成和协调,是至关重要的。


5.2 Procurement process

采购流程

In modular construction, the procurement process involves the specialist manufacturers. There are several ways of procuring modular buildings:

在模块化结构中,采购过程涉及到专业制造商。采购模块化建筑有几种方法:


  • Traditional, in which an architect provides the design co-ordination and the general contractor provides the construction co-ordination. The module manufacturer acts as a specialist sub-contractor.传统上,建筑师负责设计协调,总承包商负责施工协调。模块制造商作为一个专业的分包商。

  • ‘Design and Build’ process, in which the module manufacturer provides the detailed design and construction responsibilities. In this case, the client’s architect may carry out some of the outline design, and may be novated by the client to work for the contractor.“设计和建造”过程,其中模块制造商提供详细的设计和建造职责。在这种情况下,业主的建筑师可能会完成一些大纲设计,然后由业主更换为承包商工作。


A Design and Build contract is often used for modular construction. In such cases, the role of the client’s architect will depend on the particular procurement process. Two methods of specification by the architect are most commonly used:

设计和建造合同通常用于模块化构造。在这种情况下,客户的架构师的角色将取决于特定的采购流程。架构师最常用的规范方法有两种:


  • The architect may specify the manufacturer who will undertake the detailed design work. This will enable the parties to work together from inception to completion.建筑师可以指定制造商来承担详细的设计工作。这将使双方从开始到完成工作都能在一起工作。

  • Alternatively, the architect may draft a performance specification for the work. This is then used as a basis for tendering, either through a main contractor or directly to the modular specialists.或者,架构师可以为工作起草一个性能规范。然后,通过主承包商或直接向模块专家进行投标,以此作为投标的基础。


It should be recognised that each manufacturer undertakes the construction of their modular units differently and they will be prepared to offer advice and provide drawings at the concept stage.

应该认识到,每个制造商对其模块化单元的建造方式是不同的,他们将准备在概念阶段提供建议和图纸。


Importantly, the ‘lead-in’ time required for prototype, design and manufacture of bespoke module units should be considered, although detailed design of the modular units can be carried out in parallel with other design activities. If the module configuration is repeated from other projects, then design time is much reduced.

重要的是,尽管模块化单元的详细设计可以与其他设计活动并行进行,但原型、设计和定制模块单元制造所需的“导入”时间也应该被考虑在内。如果从其他项目重复模块配置,那么设计时间将大大减少。


6 Typical details

典型节点


6.1 Connections

模块连接

Guidance on the design and detailing of the most common connection types is given in BS EN 1993-1-8[5]. Manufacturers use the method which best suits their manufacturing process and for which appropriate test data are available.

BS EN 1993-1-8[5]中给出了最常见连接类型的设计和详细设计指南。制造商使用最适合其制造过程的方法,并为其提供适当的测试数据。


Structural connections between modules are required for integrity and robustness but details vary depending on the form of the module and the particular application. Floor boarding, plasterboard and sheathing boards are attached using self drilling, self-tapping screws. Manufacturers of light steel framed modules have prepared their own details of horizontal attachments that satisfy robustness requirements.

为了完整性和健壮性,需要模块之间的结构连接,但具体细节取决于模块和特定应用程序的形式。地板、石膏板和护墙板采用自钻、自攻螺丝固定。轻钢框架模块的制造商已经准备了他们自己的水平附件的细节,以满足健壮性的要求。


Attachment points

结合点

Attachments between modules are made in both horizontal and vertical directions, primarily to transfer in plane forces, but also for structured integrity.

模块之间的附件是在水平和垂直方向制造的,主要是为了在平面上传递力,但也为了结构的完整性。

Corner posts using hot rolled steel angles

角柱采用热轧角钢


SHS provide the highest compressive resistance and may be used as the corner posts for open sided modules. However, although these sections are compact, their connections can be more complex. A welded fin plate to which the edge beams are bolted is shown. Access holes in the SHS allow bolts to be inserted through end plates to provide for vertical and horizontal attachments.

SHS具有最高的抗压性,可作为开口模块的角柱。然而,尽管这些部分很紧凑,但它们的连接可能更复杂。一个焊接翼板,其中边缘梁螺栓显示。SHS上的访问孔允许螺栓通过端板插入,以提供垂直和水平附件。


Corner post using SHS or special sections

使用SHS或特殊路段的角柱


6.2 Facades and interfaces

外立面和接口

Various interfaces between modular units and other components in the building may not be under the control of the modular manufacturer. The responsibility for design and coordination usually lies with the building designer.

模块化单元和建筑中其他组件之间的各种接口可能不受模块化制造商的控制。设计和协调的责任通常由建筑设计师承担。


6.2.1 Foundation interfaces

基础的接口

A variety of foundations can be used, including strip, trench-fill, pad and piled foundations. Further information on pile foundations is given in SCI P299. Strip or trench-fill foundations are most common.

可采用多种基础,包括条形基础、填沟基础、垫层基础和桩基础。关于桩基础的进一步资料参见SCI P299。条形或填沟地基是最常见的。


Modular units are lightweight and therefore foundations may be smaller than in traditional construction. Nevertheless, the cladding options and building height may dictate the foundation design. With strips, rafts or ground beams, the modular units can be designed to be continuously supported around the perimeter of each unit.

模块化单元很轻,因此地基可能比传统建筑要小。然而,包层的选择和建筑高度可能决定基础设计。通过条带、木筏或地面梁,模块化单元可以被设计成连续地支撑在每个单元的周边。



Typical trench-fill foundation detail for masonry cladding

砌体包层的典型沟填地基详图


The levelling of the foundations or ground beams is crucial to the subsequent installation and alignment of the modular units. The modular manufacturers have developed their own proprietary locating and fixing mechanisms to aid the positioning of units on the foundations

地基或地面梁的水平对于随后的安装和组合单元的对齐是至关重要的。模块化制造商已经开发了自己的专有定位和固定机制,以帮助定位的单位在基础上


6.2.2 Wall cladding interfaces

外墙接口

Claddings for modular buildings can be self supporting vertically and only supported laterally by the units. Alternatively, they can be supported entirely by the modular structure.

模块化建筑的覆层可以在垂直上自我支撑,仅由单元在横向上支撑。或者,它们可以完全由模块化结构支持。


Two generic systems of facade construction may be considered:

可以考虑两种通用的外立面结构体系:


  • Cladding that is placed entirely on-site using conventional techniques.使用传统技术完全在现场放置的包层。

  • Cladding that is completely or partially attached in the factory; infill pieces or secondary cladding may be fixed on-site.在工厂内完全或部分附着的包层;填充件或二次包层可以在现场固定。


Cavity barriers must also be incorporated into any cavity that occurs between the external cladding and the modular structure. These must resist the spread of smoke and flame and are required between all separate dwellings or fire compartments. Mineral wool is generally used.

空腔屏障也必须包含在发生在外部包层和模块结构之间的任何空腔中。这些必须能够抵抗烟和火焰的蔓延,并且需要在所有独立的住宅或防火隔间之间使用。一般使用矿棉。


6.2.3 Roofing interfaces

屋面接口

Roofing materials for modular buildings generally comprise tiles supported on battens, or roof sheeting on purlins. Modern roofs may comprise tiles supported on roof sheeting or structural liner trays. Flat roofs can also be constructed with a variety of weatherproof finishes. Insulation in the line of the roof pitch is used where a ‘warm roof’ is created. However, in most cases, the roof space is ‘cold’, and insulation is placed directly on the upper surface of the modular units.

模块式建筑的屋顶材料通常包括由板条支撑的瓦片,或由檩条支撑的屋顶板。现代屋顶可以由由屋顶板或结构衬板支撑的瓦片组成。平屋顶也可以用各种防风雨饰面来建造。在“温暖的屋顶”被创建的地方,屋顶斜坡线的绝缘被使用。然而,在大多数情况下,屋顶空间是“冷的”,绝缘直接放置在模块单元的上表面。


Roofs are generally designed as separate structures that are supported either continuously by the internal walls of the modular units, or as free spanning roofs between the outer walls. Roofs may also be designed as modular units for habitable space, and ease of installation, especially in taller buildings. However, conventional trussed rafter or purlin roofs are mostly used.

屋顶通常被设计成独立的结构,由模块单元的内墙连续支撑,或者在外墙之间作为自由跨越的屋顶。屋顶也可以设计为可居住空间的模块化单元,便于安装,特别是在较高的建筑中。然而,传统的桁架椽或檩条屋顶大多使用。


Roofs are designed to support the weight of the roof covering, snow loads, services and tanks stored on the roof space, and occupancy loads from habitable use. The interface between the roof and the modular units is designed to resist both compression and tension due to wind uplift. In some cases, the roof can be designed to be detachable so that the building can be extended later. Shallow pitch roofs can be designed to be supported directly by the modular units and are easily dismantled.

屋顶的设计是为了支持屋顶覆盖物的重量,雪的负荷,储存在屋顶空间的服务和水箱,以及居住使用的负荷。屋顶和模块化单元之间的界面设计用于抵抗由于风的上升而产生的压缩和张力。在某些情况下,屋顶可以被设计成可拆卸的,这样建筑可以在以后进行扩建。浅坡屋顶可以设计成由组合式单元直接支撑,并且易于拆卸。


References

参考文献

(该部分相当于直达检索信息,因此设置收费,没有深入研究需求的可以忽略)


本文来自网络,不代表钢构人的立场,转载请注明出处。搜索工程类文章,就用钢构人网站。 https://www.ganggouren.com/2021/03/6b11bc1eeb/
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