5 MANUFACTURERS OF MODULAR UNITS IN THE UK
This section reviews the output and main applications of the major modular unit manufacturers and suppliers in the UK (in alphabetical order).
5.1 Ayrshire Steel Framing
Ayrshire Metal Products pic produces a wide range of light steel components for use in the building industry. The company’s two principal product ranges used in the building industry are the Ayrshire Steel Framing system and the Swagebeam system. The Ayrshire Steel Framing system comprises a range of special C sections of 70 to 340 mm depth, all with a shoulder joggle to enable box sections to be created. The Swagebeam is designed for use as a floor beam with cleated and bolted connections, or with moment resisting connections due to the embossment rolled into the section. These systems can be used separately or in combination to create dry envelopes, mezzanine floors, and residential and small office buildings up to 4 storeys high. Swagebeam is widely used in overroofing and refurbishment applications.
In the context of modular construction, two forms of structure have been developed:
C conventional framing using load bearing wall panels, which are bolted or welded together and are supported at their corners.
C the AyrFrame system which is based on a series of transverse box frames with longitudinal members providing the necessary stiffness in this direction (see Figure 5.1).
Figure 5.1 AyrFrame modules (unclad and unfinished at this stage)
The AyrFramedesign uses moment-resisting light steel frames that are connected longitudinally by top hat-shaped ‘furring’ runnersand corner angles. No bracing members are required as the multiple connections of the furring member provide the necessary in-plane stiffness. The ends of the modules are closed with prefabricated panels. The walls are finished with two layers of plasterboard and can be as thin as 100 mm. The floor comprises 22 mm cement bonded particle board, which is moisture resistant, and improves the acoustic insulation of the floor. The roof of the unit comprises water-resistant chipboard.
The AyrFrame modular units have been used in recent hotel projects in their collaboration with the company Volumetric. The system has also been used for various residential buildings that are cellular in form. The Ayrframe units can be manufactured to suit particular applications as they can be fitted out in a separate off-site process or finished on site.
5.2 Britspace Modular Building Systems
The Britspace Modular Building System uses steel hollow section columns at the corners of the units and at 4 m intervals along the units. Floors, wall and roof members are galvanised steel C sections, and the wall members are bolted to the longitudinal floor and roof members. The flooring material is 28 mm moistureresistant cement particle board. The walls and ceiling comprise two layers of fire resistant plasterboard to give 60 minutes fire resistance.
The system is offered with BBA certification for both residential and commercial buildings. Britspace has developed various forms of modular units for use in retaiI units, petrol filling stations, hotels and residential buildings.
Britspace and Yorkon have developed modular systems for use in fast-food restaurants for the McDonald’s chain (see Figure 1.3). These modular units are fitted out before delivery to site and are connected together on site to form the complete building with minimal additional site work. The foundation details are specially designed to facilitate site connections to light steel piles that are suitable for all ground conditions. A project in Runcorn was completed in just 24 hours from the modules arriving on the prepared site to opening.
A 3-storey residential building was constructed by Britspace for the Yorkhill Hospital in Glasgow ( reviewed in the Case Studies(3), and is illustrated in Figure 5.2). The modular units were manufactured as individual rooms and were stacked on site to form the completed building. Special features such as a curved facade and bay windows were introduced.
A sister company also produces relocatable buildings, which have all the attributes of permanent buildings.
Figure 5.2 Residential home of Yorkhill Hospital constructed using Britspace modular units
5.3 Metsec Framing
Metsec Framing is part of the Metsec Group, which produces a wide range of light steel sections and components. Metsec Framing has developed various light steel building systems, notably:
C Cypframe for housing
C Metframe for commercial buildings
C Steel Framing Systems (SFS) for general building construction.
Although not directly applicable to volumetric construction, the walls of the Cypframe and Metframe forms of construction are examples of pre-manufactured components that may be used in combination with smaller modular units. The Metframe system also uses the principles of composite construction in its flooring system.
For example, the Holiday Inn Express projects in Strathclyde and Cardiff included modular bathroom units as part of the Metframe concept (see Figure 5.3).
Prefabricated steel stairs are also available in the Metframe system, which can be supported by the wall panels at the landings.
The SFS system is used principally in ‘stick-build7 construction on site, notably for infill walls to framed buildings and for roof trusses in long span or overroofing projects (see Section 6.4).
Figure 5.3 Modular toilet units used at the Holiday Inn Express, Cardiff
5.4 Terrapin ■ Prospex
Terrapin specialises in light steel framing systems and volumetric buildings of various forms. The Prospex system uses C sections of 100 to 210 mm depth, which are assembled together with various hot rolled steel components to create the modules. The units are continuously edge supported but are lifted from their corners. The walls are braced by cross-flats (as illustrated in Figure 1.5).
The system is based on internal module widths of 2.7 and 3.5 m, with span increment of 600 mm up to a maximum of 9.6 m. A variety of cladding materials can be used. This modular system has been used for a wide range of building types, including sheltered accommodation and hotels, for the Trave lodge chain, as shown in Figure 5.4. Bathroom and toilet modules are also produced for hotels and other highly serviced buildings.
Terrapin have also developed a cassette cladding system, which has a rigid backing so that panels up to 1.5 m wide can be manufactured. This system has been used in new buildings, and in over-cladding of existing buildings, notably the British Steel Management Training Centre at Ashorne Hill, Leamington Spa.
水龟也开发了一个盒式包层系统,具有刚性支持这面板可以生产1.5米宽。该系统已被用于新建筑和现有建筑的覆层，尤其是位于Ashorne Hill的英国钢铁管理培训中心，Leamington Spa。
Terrapin also offers a main contractor role and markets a structural system called Matrex, which is built conventionally using long span hot rolled and light steel secondary beams. Recently, Terrapin has developed a system of composite construction that has patented shear connectors fixed to light steel sections.
Figure 5.4 Terrapin Prospex system used for hotel construction
5.5 Trinity Modular Technology
The TMT system is no longer available but the design rights are held by Ove Arup and Partners. One of the best examples of modular construction of this type was the 4-storey student residence at the University of Wales, Cardiff (illustrated in Figure 1.1).
The 2.4 m wide x 4 m long bedroom units were fully fitted out, stacked on site, and conventionally clad in brickwork to form a building of conventional appearance. The modules were constructed with walls of ‘DurasteeT (a composite galvanised steel sheet and fibrous cement core), and a steel deck floor and roof. The floors were surfaced with OSB board, which is glued and screwed to the steel decking.
The modules are fully insulated and achieve 3 hours fire resistance and a high degree of acoustic insulation. They are supported one on top of each other at their corners, and connections are made by tie plates. Overall stability is achieved by the wall panels.
The completed installation of the modular units for the Cardiff project is shown in Figure 3.2. The masonry cladding and pitched tiled roof were constructed conventionally. A view inside a modular bedroom is shown in Figure 5.5 (as a light steel substructure), and in Figure 1.7 as a fitted-out room.
Figure 5.5 View inside modular bedroom before lining and fitting out
Volumetric is part of the Potton Group and has a long history of modular construction, firstly using timber framing, and now using light steel framing. In recent years, Volumetric has concentrated on the hotel market, particularly for the THF Post House Group.
Volumetric是Potton集团的一部分，在模块化建筑方面有着悠久的历史，首先使用木材框架，现在使用轻钢框架。近年来，Volumetric主要集中在酒店市场，尤其是THF Post House集团。
The Potton Group offers a ‘turn-key’ design and build service. The modular units in recent projects were manufactured using the Ayrframesystem, and were fitted out inhouse by Volumetric.
The recent Post House projects in Guildford and Cambridge demonstrated the speed of these operations in extensions to existing hotels. The construction period for the 3 storey project in Guildford was less than 10 weeks. Further projects include an 80 bedroom hotel completed in 26 weeks, and plans for a 8 storey inner city hotel.
Yorkon Ltd is a sister company to the larger Portakabin Ltd and provides permanent buildings by a single point procurement. Yorkon offer building systems based on two generic module types: the Yorkon building module and the Yorkon room module.
Yorkon Ltd是一个姊妹公司，更大的Portakabin Ltd，并提供永久建筑单点采购。Yorkon提供基于两种通用模块类型的建筑系统:Yorkon building模块和Yorkon room模块。
The Yorkon building module uses light steel framingand is suitable for structures up to 4 storeys high. It is based on a standard 2.94 m wide module with lengths up to 14.7 m. Modules of 3.8 m width can also be manufactured for use in low- rise buildings, but may require special transport (see Section 7.1). A wide variety of internal and external finishes may be applied. The system has a BBA certificate, which covers a 60 year design life. It has been used for offices, hospitals and educational buildings.
The system is based on 355 mm deep light steel floor beams and 150 mm floor joists. Four 100 mm square SHS members are used at the corners, and a variety of infill walls and cladding types may be used. Internal module heights are 2.5 m, 2.7 m and 3.0 m. The standard open sided modules may be assembled to form larger spaces of up to 12 m internal span (using a separate internal post).
Yorkon has also developed its own long span room module, which spans between facade walls and across the internal corridor. It utilises the principles of stressed skin design by using the shear resistance of flat steel sheets attached to the sides of the units to create a stiff ‘box’. In hotel construction, the modules comprise two rooms and the corridor between them. In this system of monocoque construction, the module width may be in the range of 2.5 to 4.1 m, with internal lengths of 9.6 to 16.8 m in 1.2 m increments. The units may be stacked up to 6 storeys high. This modular system is illustrated in Figure 5.6.
Yorkon也开发了自己的大跨度房间模块，它跨越立面墙和内部走廊。它利用了应力表皮设计的原则，通过使用固定在单元两侧的扁钢板的抗剪能力来创建一个刚性的“盒子”。在酒店建设中，模块包括两个房间和它们之间的走廊。在这个单体建筑系统中，模块宽度可以在2.5 ~ 4.1 m之间，模块内部长度9.6 ~ 16.8 m，增量为1.2 m。这些单元可以堆叠到6层楼高。该模块化系统如图5.6所示。
Yorkon also works with independent architects and one of the best examples is in the recent Peabody Trust project in Hackney, London. The 5-storey block of 30 flats was constructed entirely from 3.2m wide x 8 m long fitted-out modular room units. The entrance area, stairs and roof were all supplied in modular form. The rain-screen cladding panels were also attached directly to the modules. A view of a module being installed is shown in Figure 5.7. An internal view of one module, which is combined with its neighbour to form a larger kitchen area, is shown in Figure 5.8.
Yorkon has also constructed a number of fast-food outlets, which are entirely fitted out in the factory. The new McDonald’s outlet at the Millennium Dome project in Greenwich will be the largest in the UK.
Figure 5.7 Installation of Yorkon module at Murray Grove, Hackney (see artist’s impression of completed building in Figure 3.3)
Figure 5.8 Internal view of kitchen module (temporary prop is removed after installation)
5.8 Other systems
Bathroom and toilet units or ‘pods’ are produced by many companies, such as R B Farquhar, and have a long track record in the commercial buildingand hotel sectors (see Section 2.1). These units are designed to be robust to prevent damage (e.g. by loss of tiles) during transport and installation.
许多公司都生产浴室和厕所单元或“豆荚”，如R B Farquhar公司，它们在商业建筑和酒店行业有着悠久的历史(见2.1节)。这些单元设计得非常坚固，以防止在运输和安装过程中出现损坏(如瓦片丢失)。
Schindler Ltd has developed a modular lift unit, which consists of storey-high lift units that are erected to a high degree of accuracy (see Section 2.3). The lift attachments are pre-installed so that the guide rails need only be located in them to form the final lift assembly.
The Unite Group has established a niche market in the student residence and Housing Association sectors where modular bedrooms and bathrooms are used in combination with traditional construction in both new-build and renovation.