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首页 朱明之关于建筑-公众号 笔记《北美正在兴起一种新型木龙骨》

笔记《北美正在兴起一种新型木龙骨》

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Brian Iverson, inventor of the Tstud, has stirred the pot. His 2×6 and 2×8 Tstuds are garnering a lot of attention among builders, designers, and building science nerds of all stripes. Touted as a six-in-one solution to thermal bridging in wall assemblies, the thermally broken Tstud is said to be a cost-effective, energy-saving, eco-friendly framing stud for the ultimate high-performance building envelope. The company also claims the product is easy to work with, doesn’t require any special training, and is stronger than #2 2x6s and 2x8s. That’s saying a lot. Hence, all the chatter.

Tstud的发明者布莱恩·艾弗森(Brian Iverson)已经引起了轰动。他的2 * 6和2 * 8的Tstud获得了建筑商、设计师和所有建筑科学爱好者的关注。Tstud作为一种六合一的墙体构件热桥解决方案,被认为是一种具有成本效益、节能、环保的高性能建筑围护结构框架螺杆。该公司还声称,该产品易于使用,不需要任何特殊培训,比#2 2x6s和2x8s更强大。这说明了很多,所以才会有这么多议论。

Photo courtesy of Matt Risinger


A few weeks ago, we discussed Tstuds on the FHB podcast (episode 186). In response to my comment about wanting to hear from someone in favor of the product, Brad Stokes, a longtime DIY home remodeler, did some research and gave the matter a good deal of thought. “I’m mostly interested in the idea of the Tstud,” he says. “Everyone seems to be advocating for thicker and thicker walls these days, as if space is free and there is no impact on interior room dimensions or encroachment on exterior boundaries. Most of us live on a fraction of an acre and have room sizes that can’t afford to lose several inches or more around the edges—not to mention the fuss and expense of all the jamb extensions.”

几周前,我们在FHB播客上讨论了Tstuds(第186集)。我说想听听支持该产品的人的意见,对此,布拉德?斯托克斯(Brad Stokes)做了一些研究,对这个问题进行了充分思考。“我最感兴趣的是Tstud这个想法,”他说。现在,每个人似乎都在提倡越来越厚的墙,好像空间是自由的,对室内空间的大小或对外部边界的侵蚀没有影响。我们大多数人都住在一英亩的土地上,房间的面积不能承受边缘的几英寸或更多的损失,更不用提所有的围栏扩建的麻烦和费用了。

Brad made some additional points that I think are worth sharing—they are good fodder for builders and designers curious about the pros and cons of this product. I also spoke with Marc Sloot of SALA Architects. He has spec’d Tstuds for a project currently underway and was able to share first-hand experience. Both Brad and Marc have responded to concerns expressed by FHB senior editor Patrick McComb, which included: cost, R-value claims, fussy corner connections, thermal bridging at the bottom plate, stud width, the two-dowel breakage limit, the 4-in. nail-gun requirement, product availability, and general complexity of the build, especially in terms of running mechanicals and plumbing.

Brad提出了一些额外的观点,我认为值得与大家分享,对于那些对这个产品的优缺点感到好奇的建筑商和设计师来说,它们是很好的素材。我还采访了SALA建筑事务所的Marc Sloot。他已经为一个正在进行的项目做了说明,并能够分享第一手的经验。Brad和Marc都对FHB高级编辑Patrick McComb表达的担忧做出了回应,包括:成本、r值索赔、复杂的角连接、底板的热桥接、螺柱宽度、双销钉断裂限制、4英寸。钉枪需求、产品可用性和构建的一般复杂性,特别是在运行机械和管道方面。

Brad begins with cost, saying: “The economy and availability of 2×6 framing is hard to beat, but it gets expensive in real dollars to add exterior foam or a secondary wall, and to extend jambs and rework the exterior details. And that doesn’t include the penalty for those of us working with a finite footprint, and who really need those extra 3 in. to make the countertop or a queen-size bed fit in the room. What’s a few thousand extra dollars on a six-figure project if you can get more comfort, lower energy bills, and make that countertop fit? At $1000 or even $5000 more, it’s an intriguing option to consider—especially since it’s probably much stronger than my only other option of building a 2×4 wall with foam. Whether it’s this product or something similar, I am a potential customer.”

Brad开始与成本,说:经济和可用的2 6框架是很难击败,但它是昂贵的实际美元,以增加外部泡沫或二次墙,延长边框和重新工作的外部细节。这还不包括我们这些使用有限空间的人,以及那些真正需要额外3英寸空间的人。使工作台面或大床适合房间。如果你能得到更多的舒适,更低的能源账单,并且能把工作台面做得合适,那么在一个六位数的项目上多花几千美元又有什么意义呢?价格在1000美元甚至5000美元以上,这是一个值得考虑的有趣的选择,特别是因为它可能比我唯一的其他选择用泡沫建造墙坚固得多。无论是这个产品还是类似的东西,我都是一个潜在的客户。

Marc’s thoughts run along similar lines. For the project pictured here—his first to be constructed with Tstuds—he was after a wall assembly with a mid-30s R-value. He considered 2x4s with exterior insulation, 2x6s with exterior insulation, conventional framing with standard interior insulation, and the Tstud assembly. “The Tstud was cost-competitive for getting to that R-value,” he reports. “It was maybe even a little less when you factor in trips around the house applying different layers for other assemblies.”

马克也有类似的想法。在这里拍摄的这个项目中——他第一次用颜料来建造——他需要一个r值在35度左右的墙。他考虑了2x4s带外部保温,2x6s带外部保温,常规框架带标准内部保温,以及Tstud总成。“为了达到r值,Tstud在成本上具有竞争力,”他说。“当你考虑到为其他组件应用不同的层时,可能会更少一些。”

Marc views the Tstud system as the middle ground between advanced building science and code compliance. “It’s the sweet spot,” he says, noting that the Tstud wall assembly is a standard 5-1/2 in. thick, yet it creates a high-performance envelope. Additionally, he appreciates the split-stud construction—sheathing as well as interior wall finishes can be applied straight to the framing members, which, he says, make Tstuds a good choice for heavy exterior siding such as stone veneer.

Marc认为Tstud系统是先进建筑科学和规范遵从之间的中间地带。他说,这是最佳选择,并指出Tstud wall装配是标准的5-1/2英寸。很厚,但它创造了一个高性能的信封。此外,他还欣赏分钉结构护套以及内墙饰面可以直接应用到框架构件上,他说,这使Tstuds成为沉重的外部壁板(如石材饰面)的一个很好的选择。

Having experimented with myriad high-performance wall assemblies, Marc is familiar with the challenges of window and door openings. “You regularly need to address thermal bridging there,” he says. “Even if you are adding continuous exterior insulation, there is at least one solid framing member at those openings. There are lots of ways to do it but you get into the weeds on the complexities of how to install and fasten the units, whereas the Tstud can go right up to the edge of the rough opening. That simplifies the process and uses conventional methods that framers are used to.” (Marc sees that familiarity as one of the biggest advantages of the system.)

Marc已经试验了无数的高性能墙壁组件,他很熟悉窗户和门开口的挑战。他说,你经常需要解决那里的热桥问题。即使你增加了连续的外部保温,在这些开口上至少有一个坚固的框架构件。有很多方法来做,但你进入杂草如何安装和固定单元的复杂性,而Tstud可以直接到粗糙的开口的边缘。这简化了过程,并使用了制宪者习惯的传统方法。(马克认为这种熟悉感是该系统的最大优势之一。)

As for corner connections being fussy, Marc disagrees, saying they are straightforward. “It’s just a single Tstud on the outside corner and a 2x nailer on the inside—like a California corner—for the drywall to attach. It’s advanced framing.”

至于街角的联系过于挑剔,马克不同意,他说这种联系很直接。“墙的外角只有一个钉头,内角则有一个2倍的钉头,就像加州墙角一样,用来固定干墙。”它是先进的框架。”

Photo courtesy of Matt Risinger


Brad concedes one trouble spot and suggests a fix. “Framing issues like the long nails could be overcome if they offered a 1-1/2-in.-thick product for the plates. I would think the structural specs for these horizontal members would be more achievable in a 1-1/2-in. thickness.” Another option is to use conventional PT 2x6s for the top and bottom plates. Brad concedes a thermal-bridging penalty there but he feels it would still be an improvement over conventional framing. When asked about Tstud bottom plates, Marc admits he used a PT 2×6 for one section of the house that cantilevers over the edge of the concrete foundation for exterior insulation—in that location he was unable to use a Tstud plate.

Brad承认了一个问题,并提出了解决办法。如果他们提供1-1/2英寸的长度,像长指甲这样的框架问题就可以克服。-厚板产品。我认为这些水平构件的结构规格在1-1/2英寸内更容易实现。厚度。另一种选择是使用传统的PT 2x6s的顶部和底部板。布拉德承认有一个热桥的罚款,但他认为这仍然是一个改进,比传统框架。当被问及Tstud底板时,Marc承认他在房子的一个部分使用了一个PT 2 6,这个部分悬挑在混凝土基础的边缘用于外部绝缘,在那个位置他无法使用Tstud板。

With regard to broken dowels, Marc says instructions for a field fix are supplied but he has yet to see it be an issue. “My observation is that it is not hard to avoid the dowels. You can stick a screwdriver through the foam to locate them. From an electrical standpoint, there’s no reason to break any. If someone’s breaking dowels, they are going at it with aggressive tools that are unnecessary.” Plus, he adds, in colder climates such as his, the only mechanicals going into an exterior wall are electrical, which can be run through the foam without threat to the dowels. Brad seconds that point: “In Minnesota, we rarely put any plumbing in the exterior walls—except an occasional drain/waste/vent system. It doesn’t surprise me that Brian Iverson’s company is in Minnesota—this product seems like a good fit for our climate (zone 6). I found a local builder who has built 15 Tstud homes in the last couple years, and there is a new home that just broke ground nearby that is using Tstuds.” (He is referring to Marc’s project.)

至于销钉损坏的问题,马克说已经提供了现场修复的说明,但他还没有看到这是一个问题。根据我的观察,避开销钉并不难。你可以用螺丝刀穿过泡沫找到它们。从电气的角度来看,没有理由破坏任何。如果有人打破木销,他们是在用不必要的侵略性工具。此外,他补充道,在像他这样的寒冷气候中,唯一进入外墙的机械装置是电子的,它可以穿过泡沫而不会对销钉造成威胁。布拉德也赞同这一点:在明尼苏达州,我们很少在外墙上安装管道,除了偶尔安装一个排水/排污口/排气系统。并t惊喜我,布莱恩·艾弗森s公司在明尼苏达州这个产品似乎是一个适合我们的气候(带6)。我发现了一个当地建筑商建立了15个Tstud家庭在过去的几年,有一个新家,附近使用Tstuds破土动工。(他指的是马克·s的项目。)

Regarding the potentially cost-prohibitive nail guns, Marc notes that larger guns, such as this one sold by Stanley Bostitch, are in the $400 to $500 range—significantly less than the $900 cited on the podcast. “If many guns are being used at one time, then a larger-capacity compressor would be needed,” he notes, “but on my project, the framers are getting by with a standard compressor.” Brad adds: “If we can eliminate the specter of the 4-in. nail gun, maybe [more people] would warm up to the Tstud.”

关于潜在的成本高得令人望而却步的钉枪,马克指出,像Stanley Bostitch销售的这种更大的钉枪,价格在400到500美元之间,远低于播客中提到的900美元。“如果同时使用许多枪,那么就需要一个更大容量的压缩机,”他指出,“但在我的项目中,制宪者们只能使用一个标准的压缩机。布拉德补充说:“如果我们能消除4英寸这个幽灵的话。”钉枪,也许(更多人)会对Tstud感兴趣。”

Tstuds are pretty new to the market, so availability is going to be a question. For this project, Marc sourced from Titan Manufacturing, an Ontario-based plant making and distributing the Tstud across North America.

Tstuds是市场上的新产品,所以可用性将是一个问题。在这个项目中,马克从泰坦制造公司(Titan Manufacturing)采购了Tstud。泰坦制造公司位于安大略,负责在北美生产和销售Tstud。

Of course, Patrick has company in his naysayers’ camp, including Brad’s son, who has a unique worry. “He’s a molecular biologist,” Brad explains. “He is particularly concerned about the chemical process of forming the polyiso insulation [that goes between the dowels for the thermal break]. He questions whether it is formed in a way that is healthy and safe when installed—especially since it is inside the exterior envelope.”

当然,帕特里克也有他的反对者,包括布拉德的儿子,他有一个独特的担忧。他是一名分子生物学家,布拉德解释道。他特别关注形成polyiso绝缘材料的化学过程(在榫销之间形成热断裂)。他质疑它的安装方式是否健康和安全,特别是因为它是在外部外壳内。

In conclusion, Marc says: “I asked the framers what they thought of the system. They said it’s a little different and they have to think about how they are putting it together, but it’s not any more difficult than stick framing. One thing they noted is the straightness of the material. They said Tstuds are consistently straight and stable. They aren’t seeing twisted studs like they do on conventional stick-frame jobs, where they typically return up to a quarter of the studs. So that’s a lot less waste.” Despite this being the framing crew’s first time using Tstuds, they are moving along as quickly as they would using traditional boards; and all of the tools used for cutting members to size are the same.

最后,马克说:我问了制宪者对这个制度的看法。他们说这有点不同,他们必须思考如何把它们组合在一起,但这并不比木棍框架更难。他们注意到的一点是材料的直线性。他们说Tstuds一直都是笔直和稳定的。他们不像在传统的杆架工作中那样看到扭曲的柱架,在传统的杆架工作中,他们通常会恢复到柱架的四分之一。这样就大大减少了浪费。尽管这是框架工作人员第一次使用Tstuds,他们移动的速度与他们将使用传统板;所有用于切割构件尺寸的工具都是一样的。

Just as I was wrapping up this post, I heard from design-build contractor Mike Maines. I had asked for his thoughts on the subject because he is a strong proponent of eco-friendly building products. He adds this measured commentary: “It’s an interesting concept and seems well-designed. They are using the least-bad closed-cell spray foam that maintains a high R-value. The thickness of the foam makes it a more effective method than more typical Bonfiglioli-type installations [the assembly Patrick favors]. On the downside, if any renovations are done in the future, unless this product gains broad market penetration, which is possible but unlikely, there is a decent chance that the system will be compromised due to lack of familiarity. Any system that requires multiple trades to change their habits is asking for trouble.” (Of course, this last point flies in the face of Marc’s argument, and it’s worth noting that Mike has not worked with Tstuds.)

就在我结束这篇文章的时候,我收到了设计建造承包商Mike Maines的来信。我问过他对这个问题的看法,因为他是环保建筑产品的强烈支持者。他补充道:这是一个有趣的概念,似乎设计得很好。他们使用的是最不坏的封闭电池喷雾泡沫,保持高的r值。泡沫的厚度使其比典型的bonfiglil型安装更加有效。不利的一面是,如果将来进行翻新,除非该产品获得广泛的市场渗透(这是可能的,但不太可能),否则该系统很有可能因为缺乏熟悉感而受到影响。任何需要多笔交易来改变习惯的系统都是在自找麻烦。(当然,这最后一点与Marc的观点相悖,值得注意的是,Mike没有和Tstuds一起工作过。)

Clearly, there’s something about the Tstud that warrants consideration. This video by Matt Risigner has elicited 2780 comments and counting. But will it take off? Like most forward-thinking products, it’s a wait-and-see situation.

显然,有一些关于Tstud值得考虑的东西。Matt Risigner的这个视频已经引发了2780条评论。但它能起飞吗?像大多数有远见的产品一样,这是一个观望的局面。




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