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新加坡DfMA和PPVC简介(4/10)

Chapter 3

Design Considerations

第三章 设计要素


3.1 Architectural Design Considerations

建筑设计要素


3.1.1 Modularisation

模块化


• At the unit layout planning and design stage, the PPVC modularisation must be undertaken in tandem with the unit layout design as early as possible. Early PPVC vendor’s and engineer’s involvement will be beneficial to the project. The modularisation is largely affected by the configuration, sizes, dimensions, weights of PPVC modules and ease of transportation.

在单元布局规划和设计阶段,PPVC的模块化必须与单元布局设计一起尽早进行。早期PPVC供应商和工程师的参与将对项目有益。模块化很大程度上受到PPVC模块的配置、尺寸、尺寸、重量和运输方便程度的影响。

• The weight of module in turn depends on the choice of PPVC material type, level of finishing, etc. The transportability of modules would be influenced by the planned delivery routes (i.e. from off-site prefabrication plants to the construction site) and types of trailers available in the industry.

模块的重量依次取决于PPVC材料类型的选择,加工水平等。模块的可运输性将受到计划交货路线(即从现场外的预制工厂到建筑工地)和行业中可用拖车类型的影响。


Figure: Example of PPVC modularisation during planning stage (Residential Block Plan)规划阶段PPVC模块化的例子(住宅大厦平面图)


3.1.2 Early Coordination

早期的协调


• Early coordination among Developer, Architect, Structural Engineer and MEP Engineer, Builder and PPVC specialist are essential as this will allow the team to look into the key design aspects upfront including layout design, floor and ceiling height, etc.

开发人员、建筑师、结构工程师、MEP工程师、施工人员和PPVC专家之间的早期协调至关重要,因为这样可以让团队提前了解关键的设计方面,包括布局设计、地板和天花板高度等。

• With proper upfront planning to integrate PPVC into the design layout, unique designs and different building features such as curved facade and non rectangular layout can be achieved.

通过适当的前期规划,将PPVC整合到设计布局中,可以实现独特的设计和不同的建筑特征,如曲面立面和非矩形布局。

• To consider the removable of non-structural partitioning wall in design for future renovation.

在未来的改造设计中考虑非结构隔断墙的可拆除性。


3.1.3 Dimension on Plan

平面尺度


• To ensure the layout plan design comply with regulatory requirements.

确保发展蓝图的设计符合监管规定。

• To ensure the size of modules allow transportation from factory to site.

确保模块的尺寸能够从工厂运输到现场。


Figure: Typical 2-Bedroom Unit Modules.

典型的2卧室单元模块。


3.1.4 Dimension on Section

立面尺度


• To ensure the floor-to-floor height comply with regulatory requirements.

确保楼层高度符合法规要求。

• To ensure the size of modules allow transportation from factory to site.

确保模块的尺寸能够从工厂运输到现场。

• To comply with regulatory requirements of ceiling height.

符合管制规定的天花板高度。

• To consider the usage of single or double slabs.

考虑使用单板或双板。

• To maximise the useable room space and ceiling height.

尽量增加可用空间和天花板高度。

Figure: Typical Sectional Detail of Modules

模块的典型剖面细节

Note: For reference only.

注:只供参考。


3.1.5 Vertical and Horizontal Alignment

垂直和水平精度


• To consider the possible misalignment of floor, wall, ceiling at joints between modules.

考虑模块之间的连接处可能出现的地板、墙壁、天花板错位。

• To consider the interfacing details between PPVC modules and in-situ construction such as core walls, staircases, corridors, and other portions of buildings.

考虑PPVC模块和现场建筑(如核心墙、楼梯、走廊和建筑的其他部分)之间的接口细节。

Figure: Typical 2-bedroom Unit Plan

Figure: Typical Sectional Detail of Modules

模块的典型剖面细节


3.1.6 Water-Tightness Between Modules

模块间的水密性


• To consider the water-tightness details on vertical and horizontal joints of modules

考虑组件垂直和水平接头的水密性细节


Figure: Typical 2-bedroom Unit Plan


3.1.7 Consideration of Construction Tolerance

施工公差的考虑


• To consider and allow construction tolerance on vertical and horizontal joints of modules and in-situ part.

考虑并允许模块和现场部件的垂直和水平接缝的施工公差。

Figure: Vertical and Horizontal Joint


3.2 Structural Design Considerations

结构设计注意事项


3.2.1 Structural Modelling

结构建模


3D modeling of building structures shall be carried out using suitable computer analysis software. In situations where module columns or walls are abutting each other, such configuration should be considered in the 3D modeling.

使用合适的计算机分析软件对建筑结构进行三维建模。当模块柱或墙是相互毗邻的情况下,这种配置应在三维建模中考虑。

In addition to the permanent design action conditions, extra modeling should be carried out to the PPVC modules with the designated number of lifting points included as temporary conditions (i.e. during hoisting operation)

除了永久性的设计动作条件外,还应对PPVC模块进行额外的建模,包括指定的吊点数量,作为临时条件(即吊装操作期间)。


Figure: Structural Modeling For High Rise Building With PPVC

基于PPVC的高层建筑结构建模


3.2.2 Vertical Modules Connection

垂直模块连接


The vertical modules connection is crucial for the structural behaviour especially for high rise buildings. They have a direct effect on the building stiffness and its corresponding response under the wind, seismic (if applicable) and lateral design action conditions. Hence, the detailing of the PPVC vertical connection must satisfy the design intent.

垂直模块连接对结构性能至关重要,尤其是高层建筑。它们直接影响建筑的刚度和在风、地震(如果适用)和侧向设计作用条件下的相应响应。因此,PPVC垂直连接的详细设计必须满足设计意图。

Vertical joints are to be designed for eccentricity or imperfection in accordance with the Building Code Requirement.

垂直接缝应根据建筑规范的要求设计偏心或缺陷。


3.2.3 Horizontal Modules Connection

模块水平连接


The horizontal modules connection forming the floor diaphragm, are equally important, contributing to the overall building stiffness. In particular, the peripheral ties and internal ties shall be provided as per the Building Code Requirements. The PPVC modules and layout shall be laterally connected and designed such that the horizontal forces (e.g. wind load) can effectively be transferred to the building’s lateral load resisting system.

水平模块连接形成地板隔膜,同样重要,有助于整体建筑刚度。特别是,外围系带和内部系带应按照建筑规范的要求提供。PPVC模块和布局应横向连接,设计时应将水平力(如风荷载)有效地传递到建筑的抗横向荷载系统中。

Due to the repetitions, and as far as practicable, the horizontal joints should be designed in a manner that the implementation at site would be speedy and simple. A classic example for steel PPVC module joints is the bolting system, whereas in concrete PPVC on-site grouting of joints is common.

由于存在重复,在实际可行的情况下,水平缝的设计应使现场施工迅速、简便。钢PPVC模块节点的一个典型例子是螺栓系统,而混凝土PPVC节点的现场灌浆是常见的。


3.2.4 Structural Robustness

结构的稳定性


The design of PPVC building shall give due consideration to the scenario of sustaining an extent of localised failure without disproportionate collapse. The inter-connected volumetric system must be capable of redistributing the internal forces to the nearest load bearing elements such that progressive collapse is totally prevented.

PPVC建筑的设计应充分考虑到局部破坏的持续程度,而不会出现不成比例的倒塌。相互连接的体积系统必须能够重新分配内力到最近的承重单元,这样就可以完全防止逐步倒塌。

Provisions for structural robustness may involve providing effective horizontal and vertical ties, notional removal of one column / nominal section of wall or designing such elements as a “key element” or systematic risk assessment in accordance with the building’s Categorisation of Consequences Classes as per relevant EN 1991-1-7 provisions.

关于结构坚固性的规定可能包括提供有效的水平和垂直联系,在名义上拆除一柱/名义部分墙体,或根据相关EN 1991-1-7规定对建筑物的后果分类进行“关键元素”设计或系统风险评估。


3.2.5 Modules Connection To Civil Defence Shelter Wall

模块连接到民防掩体墙


It is mandatory for residential building projects to incorporate either Household Shelters (HS), Storey Shelters (SS) or Staircase Storey Shelters (SSS) as Civil Defence (CD) Shelter. In situation where PPVC modules are abutting the CD shelter, effective connection for load transfer between the abutting PPVC modules and CD shelter walls at each storey level is to be provided. The connection details should take into account the construction sequence of shelter walls, launching of precast staircase flights (for SSS), casting of shelter floor slab and installation of abutting PPVC module(s), hollow cores formed in the precast hollow core shelter walls, as well as the installation of steel reinforcement cages inside the hollow cores at site.

住宅建筑工程必须纳入家庭庇护所、楼层庇护所或楼梯层高庇护所作为民防庇护所。当PPVC模块与CD避风棚相连时,应在每一层提供连接PPVC模块与CD避风棚墙之间的有效的负荷转移连接。连接细节应该考虑保护墙的施工顺序,发射预制楼梯航班(SSS),铸造的住所楼板和安装对接PPVC模块(s),空心核形成的预制空心核心保护墙,以及钢筋笼的安装在空心核在网站。

Figure: Modules Connection to Civil Defense Shelter.模块连接到民防掩体。

Note: To Refer to Relevant Technical Requirements

注:参照相关技术要求


3.2.6 Structural Design of Modules

模块结构设计


In addition to the normal elemental design under the permanent design actions, it is necessary to carry out structural analysis of transient design situation (e.g. during handling in the prefabrication plant) to the PPVC modules considering the designated lifting points during hoisting and erection. Serviceability limit checks should be performed to prevent cracks to the concrete slab, walls or steel frame distortion during handling and transporting.

除了在永久设计作用下进行常规的基本设计外,还需要对PPVC模块进行瞬态设计情况(例如在预制车间的操作过程中)的结构分析,考虑吊装和安装过程中指定的吊装点。应进行使用能力极限检查,以防止在搬运和运输过程中混凝土板、墙壁的裂缝或钢框架变形。

The lifting points must be strategically positioned such that sufficient bond anchorage can be developed to hoist the entire module safely and that the load distribution to all lifting points is reasonably uniform. It is a good practice to hoist PPVC module with the aid of steel collar frame so that the module would not be subject to inclined forces from the lifting wires.

吊装点的位置必须有策略,以便开发足够的粘结锚固以安全地吊起整个模块,并使所有吊装点的载荷分布合理均匀。使用钢项圈架来提升PPVC模块是一个很好的做法,这样模块就不会受到来自提升线的倾斜力的影响。


Broadly there are two types of framing system for concrete PPVC modules, namely:

广义上,混凝土PPVC模块有两种框架系统,即:

a. Beam-Column system, in which the beam profiles may be visible without false ceiling.

梁柱系统,梁的轮廓可以看到,没有假天花板。

b. Slab-Shear wall system, in which no beam is required for the module framing

板式剪力墙体系,模块框架不需要横梁


Figure : Modules with Lifting Collar Frame and Hooks


3.2.7 Periodic Structural Inspection (PSI)

定期结构检查


Periodic Structural Inspection (PSI) is a requirement for all buildings, be it steel or concrete. However, for Steel PPVC modules, there is an additional access panels with inspection points required to conduct the inspection on critical structures such as steel beams and column joints. These inspection points and the proposed inspection methodologies shall be identified at the onset and be included in the structural plans for fabrication and for authority submission.

定期结构检查(PSI)是所有建筑的要求,无论是钢结构还是混凝土结构。然而,对于钢制PPVC模块,还需要额外的带有检查点的访问面板来对关键结构进行检查,如钢梁和柱节点。这些检查点和拟议的检查方法应在一开始就确定,并包括在制造和提交的结构计划中。

To minimise the inconvenience to the building occupiers when the Structural Inspector conducts the inspection in future, these inspection points shall be strategically planned and located at areas that are discreet such as balconies, ac ledges, kitchens or common corridors.

为尽量减少结构检查员在日后进行检查时对楼宇使用者造成的不便,这些检查点须有策略地规划,并设于不显眼的地方,例如阳台、空调架、厨房或共用走廊。

Figure: Example of PSI Point Provision

Photographs Courtesy of Surbana Jurong Pte Ltd and Moderna Homes Pte Ltd

照片由Surbana Jurong Pte Ltd和Moderna Homes Pte Ltd提供


3.3 Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) Design Considerations

机械、电气和管道(MEP)设计考虑


TYPICAL MEP SERVICES

Electrical, lightning protection, water supply, sanitary, ACMV, gas, and any other system are part of PPVC.

电气、防雷、供水、卫生、ACMV、煤气和其他系统都是PPVC的一部分。


MEP COORDINATION

Early coordination of services will be advantageous. Constraints for installation and maintenance should be addressed early to avoid impact on pre-finished works in the later stage. Upfront design coordination in conjunction with structural prefabrication component is important.

服务的早期协调将是有利的。安装和维修方面的限制应及早处理,以免影响后期的前期工作。预先设计配合结构预制组件是重要的。


IMPACT TO STRUCTURE AND FIRE SAFETY

Necessary openings, recesses and concealed components shall be included in consideration for structural strength, fire safety measures and other relevant design.

考虑到结构强度、消防安全措施和其他相关设计,应包括必要的开口、凹槽和隐蔽部件。


INTEGRITY OF MEP SERVICES

Continuity and system integrity of all MEP services shall be taken care of. Due to the modularisation nature of PPVC, connection of MEP system components between modules may be required. Connection methodology shall not compromise integrity and performance of the system.

应注意所有MEP服务的连续性和系统完整性。由于PPVC的模块化特性,可能需要在模块之间连接MEP系统组件。连接方法不应损害系统的完整性和性能。


ACCESSIBILITY FOR INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE

Means of installation shall enable ease of maintenance or future replacement when necessary. Space for installation, maintenance and future replacement shall be allocated. Pipework enclosures (e.g. ducts, castings, etc.) shall be of a suitable size. Sufficient and suitable ready access shall be provided for maintenance, inspection, testing and repairing / replacing of the enclosed pipework.

安装方式应便于维护或在必要时进行将来的更换。应分配安装、维护和未来更换的空间。管道防护罩(例如:管道、铸件等)应具有合适的尺寸。须提供足够及适当的方便通道,以便维修、检查、测试及维修/更换封闭管道。


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ERRORS

Tolerance of gradient of pipe-works connections shall be considered. Angle and leveling of fittings may be affected after the module is positioned in-place. Design and planning shall consider tolerance of these level differences.

管道-工程连接处的坡度公差应考虑在内。模块就位后,配件的角度和水准可能会受到影响。设计和规划应考虑这些水平差异的容忍度。


Figure: Sample of Concealed Services in the Ceiling Space

天花板空间内隐藏服务的样本


3.3.1 Electrical


• Connection of components including conduit, cable trunking and cable trays.

组件的连接,包括导管,电缆槽和电缆槽。

• Joint of cable infrastructure between modules to ensure proper protection for cable.

模块之间电缆基础设施的连接,确保电缆的正确保护。

• Joint of cable shall ensure complete continuity with acceptable connection methodology,if joint of cable is unavoidable.

如果无法避免电缆的连接,应确保电缆的连接方法完全连续。

• Concealed cable infrastructure not to compromise fire safety.

隐蔽的电缆基础设施,不影响消防安全。


Figure: Electrical Services


3.3.2 Lightning Protection

防雷


• Connection of lightning conductor.

避雷针的连接。

• Connection joint shall ensure proper conductivity with acceptable methodology.

连接接头应确保适当的电导率与可接受的方法。

• If structure rebar and/or structural steel section is used as conductor, proper measures to be taken to prevent erosion of conductor.

如果使用结构钢筋和/或结构钢型材作为导线,应采取适当的措施防止导线的腐蚀。

Figure: Lightning conductor connection between modules


3.3.3 Water

给水


• Water fittings that are to be concealed shall be water-tight and suitable for the default conditions (e.g. pressure, temperature and etc), which is likely to be encountered by the water fittings.

隐蔽的水配件必须是防水的,并适用于水配件可能遇到的默认条件(例如压力、温度等)。

• Concealed components embedded in structural elements shall be taken into consideration for structural strength design.

结构强度设计应考虑嵌入在结构构件中的隐蔽构件。

Figure: Water supply routing and connection between modules


3.3.4 Sanitary

排水


• All sanitary discharge pipes and ventilating pipes shall be laid in accordance with PUB and Code of Practice requirements.

所有卫生排水管及通风管须按照《公共卫生设施规例》及《工作守则》的规定敷设。

• All gravity discharge pipes shall have suitable gradient to maintain self-cleansing velocity to ensure smooth flow.

所有重力排放管道应具有适当的坡度,以保持自清洗速度,以确保流动顺畅。

本文来自网络,不代表钢构人的立场,转载请注明出处。搜索工程类文章,就用钢构人网站。 https://www.ganggouren.com/2020/06/60d383ecf1/
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