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“脱网”生活—化粪池及渗液排放装置

本篇内容,或许能对国内农村地区目前正在开展的“厕所革命”能有点启发意义。

 

The septic tank system is believed to have originated in the country of France.

(化粪池系统被认为起源于法国。)

 

John Mouras is credited for inventing the septic tank system on or around the year 1860.

(约翰·莫拉斯由于在1860年左右发明了化粪池系统而受到赞誉。)

 

Mouras designed a septic tank and built a prototype fabricated from concrete and also fabricated piping constructed of clay leading from his home to the septic tank located in his yard.

(莫拉斯设计了化粪池,并建造了由混凝土制成的原型,还制造了由粘土制成的管道,从他家一直通到他院子里的化粪池。)

 

Approximately 10 years later John Mouras dismantled the unit and to the astonishment of his fellow townsmen found that the tank was virtually empty of any solid organic waist and only contained a liquid effluent scum layer.

(大约10年后,约翰·莫拉斯打开了该装置,令他的同乡惊讶,发现该水箱腰部,实际上没有任何固体有机物,只装有液体污水浮渣层。)

 

Eventually Mouras approached a scientist of the era and Mr. Mouras submitted a patent application and was granted a paten in the year 1881.

(最终,莫拉斯与那个时代的科学家接触,莫拉斯先生提交了专利申请,并于1881年获得了专利。)

 

The septic tank made its way to the United States of America in 1883 and some time after to Africa, believed by the British Navy.

(化粪池于1883年引入美国,到达非洲一段时间后,开始得到英国海军认可。)

 

A simple standard septic tank is typically 1000 to 2000 gallons.

(一个简单的标准化粪池通常为1000加仑至2000加仑(约合3.8立方米至7.6立方米))

 

The tank will have typically two inspection openings one inlet opening coming from the house and one outlet opening going the distribution box.

(化粪池通常具有两个检查孔,一个入口是从房屋出来的,一个出口是通往分配箱(配水池)的。)

 

The distribution box is the junction between the septic system and the drain field which distributes the digested effluent material to the drain field.

(分配箱是化粪池系统与排水区之间的连接点,将降解的污水物质分配到排水区。)

 

There are three layers of waste in the septic system.

(化粪池系统中有三层废物。)

The top layer typically floats and is considered the scum layer until to digest and falls to the bottom.

(顶层通常漂浮,并被视为“浮渣层”,直到降解并掉入底部为止。)

 

The bottom layer is called the sludge layer.(底层称为“污泥层”。)

 

There is the liquid layer that lies in between the scum and the sludge layers.

(在浮渣层和污泥层之间存在“液体层”(“液体污水层”))

 

This is also referred to as the effluent layer.(这也称为“流出层”。)

 

If not properly maintained, this is also the layer that is most likely to give you the sewer smell or seep through the top of the leach field if the field is clogged and not functioning properly.

(如果维护不当,这也是最可能给您带来下水道气味或渗漏的顶部的层,如果该区域被堵塞且无法正常运行。)

 

You may introduce a bacteria enzyme treatment into the system to ensure a sufficient bacteria count and to ensure the digestation process.

(您可以将细菌酶处理投入系统中,以确保有足够的细菌数并确保降解过程。)

 

Breaking down the solids through this process is essential to maintaining a safe and healthy system.

(通过此过程分解固体对于维持安全健康的系统至关重要。)

 

The volume of wastewater flow is determined by the type and frequency of common household activities.

(废水流量取决于家庭日常活动的类型和频率。)

 

Good water usage practices in the home will limit the flow into the system limiting the overall strain on the system.

(家庭中良好的用水习惯将限制流入系统的水,从而限制系统的整体压力。)

 

Private Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems (POWTS), more commonly referred to as septic systems, are used primarily in rural areas of the country where waste water treatment is not available.

(私人现场废水处理系统(POWTS),通常更称为化粪池系统,主要用于无法进行废水处理的国家农村地区。)

 

Septic tanks are self-contained wastewater disposal systems.

(化粪池是独立的废水处理系统。)

 

Nearly 25 percent of United States households use a septic system as the means of water and sewage disposal.

(美国近25%的家庭使用化粪池系统作为水和污水处理的手段。)

 

Septic tank systems are something we don’t like to think about and, usually, don’t until there is a problem.

(化粪池系统是我们不需要考虑的事情,通常只有在出现问题时才考虑。)

 

A septic tank handles all of the wastewater from homes that are not connected to a public sewer system.

(化粪池处理未连接到公共下水道系统的房屋中的所有废水。)

 

This means that your septic system is not connected to the city water supply and that you are responsible for keeping your system operational.

(这意味着您的化粪池系统未连接到城市排水系统,并且您有责任保持系统运转。)

 

When a septic tank is neglected, it can clog with sludge and scum that cannot be broken down by bacteria, leading to a costly systemic collapse.

(当化粪池被忽略时,它会堵塞无法被细菌分解的污泥和浮渣,从而导致代价高昂的系统性崩溃。)

 

For this reason, you need to keep your tank clean, inspected, and pumped regularly.

(因此,您需要定期清理、检查和泵送。)

 

Using excessive amounts of soap or detergent can cause problems with the septic system.

(使用过量的肥皂或清洁剂可能会导致化粪池系统出现问题。)

 

Most private septic systems are made up of two parts: the holding and digesting tanks, and the dispersal field.

(大多数私人化粪池系统由两部分组成:储存池和消化池以及扩散场。)

 

As the first holding tank fills up, the liquid waste will transfer to the second tank.

(随着第一个储罐的注满,废液将转移到第二个储罐。)

 

Once the second tank fills with liquid, it will disperse into the soil below it.

(一旦第二个储罐充满液体,它将分散到其下方的土壤中。)

 

The basic idea of flush toilets combined with a septic tank hooked up to a drain field is to provide a small system with primary sewage treatment.

(“抽水马桶”与连接到排水场的“化粪池”相结合的基本理念,是提供一个小型系统,提供初级污水处理。)

 

Sludge settles to the bottom of the septic tank, is partially reduced by anaerobic digestion, and fluid is dispersed in the leach field.

(污泥沉淀到化粪池的底部,通过厌氧降解而部分减少,并且污水液体输送到渗滤排水场中。)

 

The leach field is usually under a yard growing grass.(通常院子中渗滤场地排水区域种着草。)

 

However, septic tank effluent has a very high Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) which is harmful to soil fauna, as high BOD liquids strip oxygen out of the soil.

(然而,化粪池废水具有很高的生物需氧量(BOD),这对土壤动物有害,因为高BOD液体会将氧气从土壤中带走。)

 

Failure to pump a septic tank can cause a high level of solids in the overflow liquid that damages the leach field, and contaminates ground water.

(不抽化粪池可能会导致溢流液体中固体含量高,从而损坏渗滤场地并污染地下水。)

 

Septic tanks may also require some lifestyle changes, such as not using garbage disposals, minimizing fluids flushed into the tank, and minimizing nondigestible solids flushed into the tank.

(化粪池还可能需要改变生活方式,例如不使用垃圾处理,将冲入池中的液体,减至最少,以及将冲入池中的不可消化的固体,减至最少。)

 

For example, septic safe toilet paper is recommended.

(例如,建议使用对化粪池安全的厕纸(易降解手纸)。)

 

Care must be taken as to the products that are allowed to enter the drains.

(必须小心允许进入下水道的物品。)

 

All septic tanks rely on a colony of anerobic bacteria to reduce the volume of organic matter in the sewage.

(所有化粪池都依赖于需氧细菌菌落来减少污水中有机物的量。)

 

Any product that is anti-bacterial should not enter the tank.

(任何具有抗菌作用的产品均不得进入化粪池。)

 

These products include anti-bacterial cleaning products, bleach, toilet blocks, disinfectants, etc.

(这些物品包括抗菌清洁产品、漂白剂、马桶块、消毒剂等。)

 

If you really want to you can dump some special ‘septic tank bacteria’ in it once in a while, or have it pumped out once a year.

(如果您确实愿意,可以不时地将一些特殊的“化粪池细菌”倒入其中,或者每年将其抽出一次。)

 

Some would like to make use of the methane generated, or the heat, or the composted solids.

(有些人想利用产生的甲烷,或热量,或堆肥固体。。)

 

Many septic tanks are now manufactured with GRP(Glass Reinforced Plastic).

(现在,许多化粪池都使用玻璃纤维增强塑料(GRP)制造。)

 

This technology is generally used where sewers have not been connected, as sewers are more reliable and can present less public health problems.

(由于市政下水道更可靠且公共卫生问题较少,因此该技术通常用于未连接市政公共下水道的地方。)

 

In many developed counties, Decentralization of sewage treatment plants (DEWATS) is being adopted for new ‘ECO’ towns to combat this problem.

(在许多发达国家,“分散式污水处理厂(DEWATS)”正在采用新的“生态”城镇应对这个问题。)

 

In the developed world, this technology used to be used in remote areas; in poorer communities in the developing world, some form of septic tank may be the standard, even in high density settlements and increasingly, where DEWATS is adopted.

(在发达国家,这种技术曾经用于偏远地区。在发展中国家较贫穷的社区中,某些形式的化粪池可能是标准配置,即使在高密度住区中,也越来越多地采用DEWATS。)

 

In the UK, septic tank installations are prohibited in many areas now, under the Environment Agency’s ‘General Binding Rules’ January 15th, 2015.

(2015年1月15日,根据英国环境局的“一般约束规则”,在英国许多地区禁止使用化粪池。)

 

The outlet should be considered a source of contamination, even though it should be less dangerous and unpleasant than raw sewage.

(即使出口比原始污水没有那么危险和令人不愉快,也应将其视为污染源。)

 

Thus the tank and its discharge should be kept a safe distance from any water source.

(因此,化粪池及其排水口应与任何水源保持安全距离。)

 

10 m is generally considered adequate (Environment Agency Guidelines).

(通常认为10 m是足够的(《环境署指南》)。)

 

The tank should also be above the groundwater level. (化粪池也应高于地下水位。)

 

Antiseptics must NEVER be used in any toilet or drain leading to the septic tank, as they will kill the anaerobic bacteria, preventing decomposition, and leading to very unpleasant smells and an unsafe discharge.

(切勿在通向化粪池的任何厕所或下水道中使用防腐剂,因为它们会杀死厌氧细菌,防止分解,并导致难闻的气味和不安全的排放。)

 

Do not allow the sediment to build up too much, as this will greatly reduce efficiency, increasing the odor, and the level of contamination in the outlet.

(不要让沉积物堆积过多,因为这会大大降低效率,增加气味和出口中的污染程度。)

 

UK Building Regulations Section H2 recommend an annual emptying interval.

(英国建筑法规H2节建议每年清空一次。)

 

Do not use any strong drain cleaners, caustic soda or similar products to clean the drains.

(请勿使用任何强力的排水管清洁剂、苛性钠或类似产品清洁排水管。)

 

These will kill the beneficial anerobic bacteria in the septic tank.

(这些将杀死化粪池中的有益需氧细菌。)

 

How Your Septic System Works(化粪池系统如何工作)

 

Septic systems are underground wastewater treatment structures, commonly used in rural areas without centralized sewer systems.

(化粪池系统是地下废水处理构造,通常在没有集中式下水道系统的农村地区使用。)

 

They use a combination of nature and proven technology to treat wastewater from household plumbing produced by bathrooms, kitchen drains, and laundry.

(他们结合了自然和成熟的技术来处理浴室、厨房排水管和洗衣房产生的家庭管道废水。)

 

A typical septic system consists of a septic tank and a drainfield, or soil absorption field.

(典型的化粪池系统由化粪池和排水场或土壤吸收场组成。)

The septic tank digests organic matter and separates floatable matter (e.g., oils and grease) and solids from the wastewater.

(化粪池降解有机物,并从废水中分离出漂浮物(例如油和油脂)和固体。)

 

Soil-based systems discharge the liquid (known as effluent) from the septic tank into a series of perforated pipes buried in a leach field, chambers, or other special units designed to slowly release the effluent into the soil.

(基于土壤的系统将化粪池中的液体(称为污水)排放到埋在渗滤场地、处理室或其他旨在将污水缓慢释放到土壤中的其他特殊单元中的一系列穿孔管中。)

 

Alternative systems use pumps or gravity to help septic tank effluent trickle through sand, organic matter (e.g., peat and sawdust), constructed wetlands, or other media to remove or neutralize pollutants like disease-causing pathogens, nitrogen, phosphorus, and other contaminants.

(替代系统使用泵或重力来帮助化粪池污水流经沙子,有机物(例如泥炭和锯末),人工湿地或其他介质,以去除或中和诸如致病性病原体、氮、磷和其他污染物之类的污染物。)

 

Some alternative systems are designed to evaporate wastewater or disinfect it before it is discharged to the soil.

(一些替代系统旨在将废水蒸发或消毒后再排放到土壤中。)

 

Specifically, this is how a typical conventional septic system works:

(具体来说,这是典型的常规化粪池系统的工作方式:)

 

All water runs out of your house from one main drainage pipe into a septic tank.

(所有水从一根主排水管流出您的房屋,进入化粪池。)

 

The septic tank is a buried, water-tight container usually made of concrete, fiberglass, or polyethylene.

(化粪池是一个通常由混凝土、玻璃纤维或聚乙烯制成的埋入式防水容器。)

 

Its job is to hold the wastewater long enough to allow solids to settle down to the bottom forming sludge, while the oil and grease floats to the top as scum.

(它的工作是将废水保持足够长的时间,以使固体沉降到底部形成的污泥,而油脂则以浮渣的形式漂浮到顶部。)

 

Compartments and a T-shaped outlet prevent the sludge and scum from leaving the tank and traveling into the drainfield area.

(隔室和T形出口,可防止污泥和浮渣离开化粪池并进入排水区。)

 

The liquid wastewater (effluent) then exits the tank into the drainfield.

(液体废水(流出物)然后从化粪池进入排水区。)

The drainfield is a shallow, covered, excavation made in unsaturated soil.

(排水场是在非饱和土壤中进行的浅而有盖的开挖。)

 

Pretreated wastewater is discharged through piping onto porous surfaces that allow wastewater to filter though the soil.

(预处理后的废水通过管道排放到多孔表面上,从而使废水能够通过土壤过滤。)

 

The soil accepts, treats, and disperses wastewater as it percolates through the soil, ultimately discharging to groundwater.

(土壤接受、处理和分散废水,因为它通过土壤渗透,最终排放到地下水中。)

 

If the drainfield is overloaded with too much liquid, it can flood, causing sewage to flow to the ground surface or create backups in toilets and sinks.

(如果排水区中的液体过多,可能会淹没,导致污水流到地面或在厕所和水槽中形成阻塞。)

 

Finally, the wastewater percolates into the soil, naturally removing harmful coliform bacteria, viruses and nutrients.

(最后,废水渗入土壤,自然清除有害的大肠菌、病毒和养分。)

 

Coliform bacteria is a group of bacteria predominantly inhabiting the intestines of humans or other warm-blooded animals.

(大肠菌群是主要居住在人类或其他温血动物肠道中的一组细菌。)

 

It is an indicator of human fecal contamination.(它是人类粪便污染的指标。)

 

考虑到,由正规工厂生产的,整体结构的,全现浇钢筋混凝土,预制化粪池,比较能够保证产品的质量,因而,以下主要是介绍,预制钢筋混凝土化粪池的情况,多一些。

 


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