首页 国际标准结构工程-公众号 海外工程十五年之二十八——国外土木工程的内容




Civilengineering is that branch of engineering which aims to provide a comfortableand safe living for the people. Shelter, one of the primary needs of mankind,is provided by civil engineers. The efficient planning of water supply andirrigation systems is increases the food production in country. Shelters, apartfrom just being shelters, have been constructed by civil engineers to provide apeaceful and comfortable life. The engineering marvels of the world, startingfrom the pyramids to today’s thin shell structures, are the result of thedevelopment in civil engineering. Communication lines like roads, railways,bridges, etc. without which development is impossible, are fruits of civilengineers, work.


1  Scope of Civil Engineering  土木工程的范围

Anydiscipline of engineering is a vast field with various specialisations, The majorspecialisations of civil engineering are listed below:


1.Structural engineering    结构工程

2.Geotechnical engineering    岩土工程

3.Fluid mechanics, hydraulics and hydraulic machines    流体力学、水力学和液压机械

4. Transportationengineering   交通运输工程

5.Water supply, sanitary and environmental engineering    给水、卫生与环境工程

6.Irrigation engineering    灌溉工程

7.Surveying, levelling and remote sensing   测量、水准与遥感

2.1  Structural Engineering    结构工程

Structuralengineering is the most important specialisation in civil engineering. Theconstruction of a structure needs efficient planning, design and method of constructionto serve the purpose fully. Generally there are five major steps in anyconstruction project. These include the following:


1.Positioning and arranging the various parts of the structure into a definiteform to achieve best utilisation.


2.Finding out the magnitude, direction and nature of various forces acting on thestructure.


3.Analysing  the structure to know thebehaviour of the various part of the structure subjected to the above forces.


4Designing the structure such that its stability under the action of variousload is ensured.


5.Executing the work with selected construction materials and skilled workers.


2.2  GeotechnicalEngineering    岩土工程

Forthe efficient functioning of any structure built on earth, the behaviour ofsoil must be known. Geotechnical engineering gives the basic idea about thesoil. this branch also deals with the following aspects:   为使在地基上的建筑育雏充分地发挥作用,必须了解地基特性。岩土工程给出了地基土的基本概念。这一分支还涉及以下几个方面:

1.Thepropeirties and behaviour of soil as a material under “soilmechanics”’,


2.The various types of foundations for a structure, for a machine, ete;. and theirsuitability. Geotechnical Engineering also deals with the analysis design andconstruction of foundation.


2.3  Fluid Mechanics, Hydraulics and Hydraulic Machines  流体力学、水力学和液压机械

Fluidmechanics deals with the properties and behaviour of fluids at rest or inmotion. The principles of fluid mechanics can be applied to daily life as inthe case of the flight of planes, the movement of fish in water, and thecirculation of blood in the veins.


Thedesign of hydraulic structures, such as dams and regulators, require the forceexerted by water and the behaviour of water under pressure.


Machineswhich utilise the hydraulic energy are called hydraulic machines. For example,turbines use potential energy of water to generate power. Pumps are deviceswhich utilise mechanical energy to lift water. The efficient working of theabove machines depends upon the fluid behaviour which is dealt with in

this discipline.


2.4  Transportation Engineering    交通运输工程

Thedevelopment of a nation mainly depends on the communication facilities available.A nation’s wealth is measured in terms of the road and railway facilitiesavailable. There are three modes of transportation viz, land, water and air. Thisspecialisation deals with the design, construction and execution of the communicationroutes.


Thedifferent branches of transportation engineering include the following: highwayengineering deals engineering deals with the with the planning and designing ofroads, railway engineering deals with the railway tracks, harbour engineeringdeals with the harbours and airport engineering deals with the airports.


2.5  Water Supply, Sanitary and Environmental Engineering    给水、卫生与环境工程

Withoutfood man can survive for days but not without water. The responsibility  of providing potable (drinking) water to thepublic and disposing the waste water safely is that of a civil engineer. Thesources of water are precipitation and underground water.


Watersupply engineering deals with the location, collection of water, its treatmentmethods, test for standard limits and efficient supply of water.


Usedwater, solid wastes, toxic wastes, etc. cannot be disposed directly since theseaffect the environment. Hence these have to be treated and tested for thestandard limits and the disposed. Sanitary engineering deals with thecollection of used water, their treatment methods and effective disposal whichsafeguards the whole world. The natural and artificial wastes generated andreleased into the atmosphere have upset the natural equilibrium. Anthropogenicor human-induced pollutants have overloaded the system.


  The role of an environmental engineer is tobuild a bridge between biology and technology by applying all the techniques tothe job of cleaning the debris. Environmental engineering deals with the methodsof protecting the environment from the deleterious effects of human activitywhich would result in the improvement of environmental quality for the wellbeing of mankind.


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